[BIOS 4630] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Lecture 1: BioChem Introduction
I. Biological Chemistry (Biochemistry)
a. Describes life in molecular terms
c. What are biomolecules made of? Ex. Proteins (amino acids and their
d. How are they organized? Assembled? Discrete units or protein complexes?
e. How do their structures change? Under different physiological conditions (cell
elevation or decrease in pH, or body temperature are examples)
f. What are their functions? Why are they necessary? Consequences of non-
function (e.g. disease)? Losing a protein function for example in cystic fibrosis.
Mutations in the cystic fibrosis membrane receptor lead to loss in function of
g. Che▯i▯al r▯▯s ▯e▯essar▯ for life…. Pathwa▯ orga▯izatio▯/regulatio▯
II. Historical Perspective
a. Wohler 1828: synthesized urea in lab, without requiring a kidney or an animal,
either man or dog.
i. This was really the origin of biochemistry
ii. Biochemical pathway that leads to the synthesis of urea
III. Biochemical Literature
a. Journals devoted to all aspects of biochemistry, proteins, lipid structure etc.
b. Allows us to understand biodiversity of biochemistry
IV. Free Radical Biology and Medicine
a. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): naturally produced in a variety of different
metabolic reactions. Natural process. Some of these ROS are detrimental, some
can do damage to cells or proteins or DNA or lipids. But there is a certain balance
between beneficial ROS such as signaling and detrimental ROS leading to cell
damage and cell death.
b. CV, pulmonary, neurodegenerative diseases (atherosclerosis, Alzheimers):
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