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[BIOS 4730] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot th..
[BIOS 4730] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes fot the exam (39 pages long!)

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Ohio University
Biological Sciences
BIOS 4730

[BIOS 4730] Comprehensive Final Exam guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Animal Behavior Lecture One Notes 1/10/17 I. Science is a. Guided by natural law b. Explanatory by reference to natural law c. Testable against empirical world d. Tentative e. Falsifiable II. Scientific Method a. Induction vs Deduction i. Deductive reasoning goes from general to specific and induction is the opposite b. Classical Model (Induction) i. Uncertainties 1. Problem 1: Range of Precision III. Other Stages or Methods a. Increased Precision Model: Hypothetico-deductive model b. Is precision the only cause of uncertainty? c. Example: Do cigarettes cause cancer? i. Problem 2: unexamined alternative hypotheses d. Falsification Model: correlation does not equal causation e. Process of falsification and corroboration f. P▯o▯e ▯e▯o▯d ▯easo▯a▯le dou▯t… u▯▯e▯tai▯t▯ o▯l▯ at li▯its. IV. Problems with Falsification a. Often fails and not just at limits b. P▯o▯le▯ ▯: data is theo▯▯ lade▯ ▯it is the theo▯▯ that de▯ides that ▯e CAN o▯se▯▯e▯ i. Ca▯’t fall ▯a▯k o▯ i▯du▯tio▯-how induction fails ii. Ca▯’t ▯o▯k ▯ithout p▯e▯o▯▯ei▯ed pla▯ iii. Induction fails to arrive at universal truths iv. Formulation of hypothesis creative V. Paradigm Model a. Paradigm- a scientific frame of reference defined by a set of value choices b. Process: directed discovery i. Falsification and corroboration and statistics ii. Hypotheses, deduction, test, revision iii. No limit to the extent to which we should expect scientific knowledge to change VI. Decision Theory a. 1. State Probable Hypothesis b. Asses two ways of being wrong i. Accept and false ii. Reject and true find more resources at
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