J 2500 notes and review
The message Learning Approach to Persuasion (started in Yale)
-Effective persuasive communications
Attention Drawing (attention
Convincing (Judgement and Choice)
Four Independent Variables
Message (Says What)
Recipient (To Whom).
Medium (Through Which Channel)
Dependent variables: “effective” (with what effects)
Exposure Control: Avoid unwanted messages- Attention and Comprehension are factors in
persuasion. Most people don’t want to be exposed to ads.
Overcoming exposure control is the first step in message learning
^. Design salient or vivid ads and give back with humor, etc.
Source factors: Many factors affect persuasion
Credibility: Percieved likelihood of the message truth value. Depends on reputation, vested
interest (someone famous praising something as opposed to someone not famous). Two
sided messages increase credibility- some info goes against the specific sources vested
Attractiveness: Physical appearance, presentation style- look to audience, rapid, fluid
speech, avoid hedging. Source importance is directly related to source factor effects.
Source Noticeable: high importance
Source Hidden: Low importance.
Message Factors: refers to message type (says what) Complex or simple
Rational or emotional
Factual or anecdotal
One-sided or two-sided
Complexity: Bottom line or number of reasons. Ex. Buy Brand X or “Here’s why”. Complexity
and comprehension have a negative correlation.
Rational vs. Emotional: Rational appeals are logical arguments. Emotional appeals are based
on feelings. Interaction with recipient factor: Rational is better for those high in need for
Two-sided messages: Limitations-Better if one doesn’t like it or has no attitude about it but
worse if attitude was favorable.
Protection-Motivational Theory: 3 key variables of fear appeals- danger likelihood, coping
Recipient Factors refers to target audience (To Whom) Many recipient factors play a role.
Need for cognition
Personality or persuasion theory: 3 key principles- Mediational, Combinatory, Situational-
Mediational: Many psychological processes underlie persuasion.
Combinatory: Reception and yielding oppose one another given any personality factor.
Situational-Weighting principle: (From point of view of strat com and PR) - reception and
yielding are not always equally important. Simple message-Reception is easy so yielding is more important
Complex message- Reception is difficult so more important
Medium Factors: through which channel media is transported.
Media interacts with source, message and recipient factors
Medium traits and uses tend to dictate persuasive abilities.
• Complex messages do better written
• Simple messages do better audio/visually
Consumer choice: effort and heuristics
Consideration set refers to a group of products considered when making a purchase.
The Choice Consideration Set: It’s
dynamic (1 Brand) nature:
1(loyal) to 9 (7+ 2) Brand awareness-no
Recently, frequently and elaborately considered info more memorable. Consideration
sets change over time.
Part-list cueing: partial brand list to reduce number retrieved from memory. Reduce
consideration set and keep your production- Increases likelihood of choosing your
product. Ex. Piecemeal Data “Brand X” has more head room than a
Mercedes, more leg room than a Cadillac and more trunk space then a BMW” X has
one quality better than each brand but overall it may not be better than one of the 3
How does it work?
1. Memory Search: Retrieve same product repeatedly
a. Strong association: Few brands leads to multiple retrievals
b. Part-list strengthens association
2. Stop searching memory: imagine we have exhausted all possibilities. Attraction Effect: Adding similar but inferior product to a line increases the attractiveness
1. New products highlights price-quality relationship. Price-quality relationship-value
2. Better value product will increase in sales
Only two similar products of ONE brand
Compromise effect: middle brands/ products (among 3 or more) chosen more often than
extremes. The extremes make the middle choice seem like a safe bet.
Trade-off Contrast Effect: Value even clearer when more products considered.
Consumer choice processes.
Choice Heuristics: Mental short cuts: 2 main tops
1. Attitude based heuristics: overall impres