J 2500 notes and review.docx

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Department
Journalism
Course
JOUR 3750
Professor
Carson Wagner
Semester
Spring

Description
J 2500 notes and review The message Learning Approach to Persuasion (started in Yale)  -Effective persuasive communications  Attention Drawing (attention  Comprehensible (Comprehension)  Convincing (Judgement and Choice)  Memorable (Memory)  Four Independent Variables  Source (Who)  Message (Says What)  Recipient (To Whom).  Medium (Through Which Channel) Dependent variables: “effective” (with what effects) Exposure Control: Avoid unwanted messages- Attention and Comprehension are factors in persuasion. Most people don’t want to be exposed to ads. Overcoming exposure control is the first step in message learning ^. Design salient or vivid ads and give back with humor, etc.  Source factors: Many factors affect persuasion  Expertise  Credibility  Attractiveness  Familiarity Credibility: Percieved likelihood of the message truth value. Depends on reputation, vested interest (someone famous praising something as opposed to someone not famous). Two sided messages increase credibility- some info goes against the specific sources vested interest. Attractiveness: Physical appearance, presentation style- look to audience, rapid, fluid speech, avoid hedging. Source importance is directly related to source factor effects. Source Noticeable: high importance Source Hidden: Low importance.  Message Factors: refers to message type (says what)  Complex or simple  Rational or emotional  Factual or anecdotal  One-sided or two-sided Complexity: Bottom line or number of reasons. Ex. Buy Brand X or “Here’s why”. Complexity and comprehension have a negative correlation. Rational vs. Emotional: Rational appeals are logical arguments. Emotional appeals are based on feelings. Interaction with recipient factor: Rational is better for those high in need for cognition Two-sided messages: Limitations-Better if one doesn’t like it or has no attitude about it but worse if attitude was favorable. Protection-Motivational Theory: 3 key variables of fear appeals- danger likelihood, coping effectiveness, self-efficacy.  Recipient Factors refers to target audience (To Whom) Many recipient factors play a role.  Need for cognition  Self-esteem  Self-Monitoring  Prior Knowledge Personality or persuasion theory: 3 key principles- Mediational, Combinatory, Situational- Weighting.  Mediational: Many psychological processes underlie persuasion.  Perception  Comprehension  Retention  Retrieval  Agreement  Decision making  Combinatory: Reception and yielding oppose one another given any personality factor.  Situational-Weighting principle: (From point of view of strat com and PR) - reception and yielding are not always equally important.  Simple message-Reception is easy so yielding is more important  Complex message- Reception is difficult so more important  Medium Factors: through which channel media is transported.  Media interacts with source, message and recipient factors  Medium traits and uses tend to dictate persuasive abilities. • Complex messages do better written • Simple messages do better audio/visually Consumer choice: effort and heuristics Consideration set refers to a group of products considered when making a purchase. Brands available The Choice Consideration Set: It’s Consideration Set dynamic (1 Brand) nature: 1(loyal) to 9 (7+ 2) Brand awareness-no awareness=no consideration. Recently, frequently and elaborately considered info more memorable. Consideration sets change over time. Part-list cueing: partial brand list to reduce number retrieved from memory. Reduce consideration set and keep your production- Increases likelihood of choosing your product. Ex. Piecemeal Data “Brand X” has more head room than a Mercedes, more leg room than a Cadillac and more trunk space then a BMW” X has one quality better than each brand but overall it may not be better than one of the 3 brands. How does it work? 1. Memory Search: Retrieve same product repeatedly a. Strong association: Few brands leads to multiple retrievals b. Part-list strengthens association 2. Stop searching memory: imagine we have exhausted all possibilities. Attraction Effect: Adding similar but inferior product to a line increases the attractiveness of original. 1. New products highlights price-quality relationship. Price-quality relationship-value 2. Better value product will increase in sales Only two similar products of ONE brand Compromise effect: middle brands/ products (among 3 or more) chosen more often than extremes. The extremes make the middle choice seem like a safe bet. Trade-off Contrast Effect: Value even clearer when more products considered. Consumer choice processes. Choice Heuristics: Mental short cuts: 2 main tops 1. Attitude based heuristics: overall impres
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