[BIOL 3114] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (67 pages long)

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29 Nov 2016
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BIOL 3114
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Vertebrate Morphology
Chapter 3
Earliest fossils
Early chordates ~520 mya form China
Hailouella sister group to vertebrates?
o Notochord, myomeres, pharynx
Derived traits brain, eyes muscular pharynx, but no evidence of cranium
Myllokunmingia and Hailouichthys small (3 cm)
o ~520 mya in China
o Cranium, W-shaped myomeres
o Dorsal fin
Primitive Vertebrates
Earliest vertebrates lacked:
o Jaws
o Paired fins
o Mineralized tissues
Primitive living verts share plesiomorphies
Class Agnatha paraphyletic
o Hagfish class Myxinoidea
o Lamprey class Petromyzontoidea
Hagfish
~40 species
50 cm long
Soft, pinkish/purplish skin, no scales
Mouth with no jaws, 6 tentacles
Keratin tooth plates and protusible tongue
1-15 external gill openings
Notochord, no vertebrae
Degenerate eyes covered by skin
Single, terminal nostril
Accessory hearts near liver and tail
Single, semi-circular canal
No bone
Food travels through digestive tract in mucus sac
Simple kidney, isosmotic body fluids
Numerous mucus glands defense
Ties self in knot to feed and sneezes to clean off mucus
Scavengers
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