[MUSI 3583] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (15 pages long!)

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MUSI 3583
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Central Asia
Music of Central Asia and the Caucasus
Daily earthquake tremors in Armenia
Duduk players tease with haunting sounds of the past
Music and culture blend beautifully in this soundscape
Soundscape setting, sound and significance
Ethnomusicology does not simply study musics of a particular culture. It studies it from different
perspectives.
Music is looked at in context and in relation to the cultures that make it
One of the essential characters of ethnomusicology is fieldwork
Fieldwork allows for new ways for learning and creates an atmosphere where challenges take many
forms
Diverse Identities
o Central Asia includes many countries with diverse identities including:
Mongolia
Northwest Muslim China
Afghanistan
Former Soviet Republics of Kazakhstan
Kyrgyzstan
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
Turkmenistan
o The Caucasus are also often grouped with Central Asia and include:
Armenia
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Norgorno-Karabagh
Portions of Russia
Central Asia: Case Studies from Kyrgyzstan
o Musical performance can act as a medium for the maintenance of cultural identity
o Kyrgyzstan is a country in Central Asia bounded by Uzbekistan to the west, Kazakhstan to the
north, China to the east and Tajikistan to the south
o Modern nation of Kyrgyzstan has history based on nomadic tribes
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o After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution Kyrgyzstan became part of the Soviet Union as the Kyrgyz
Autonomous Republic
o It became a full republic of the Soviet Union in 1936
o Mikhail Gorbachev made big changes in the 1980s, which led to the fall of the Soviet Union
o This led to Kyrgyzstan gaining independence
o Mountain instrumental music from Kyrgyzstan
During the Soviet Era much of the music was lost
Kyrgyz musical instruments include:
Komuz (three-stringed lute)
Kyl Kayak (two-stringed bowl fiddle)
Choor (end-blown flute made from reed or wood)
Chopo choor (clay ocarina with three to six holes found in southern Kyrgyzstan)
Sybyzgy (side-blown transverse flute traditionally played by shepherds)
Jygach ooz Komuz
Temir Komuz (wooden and metal jew’s harp)
Kuus rely on instrumental programmatic music that tells stories
Central Asia: Case Studies from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
o Before the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan was the third most populous republic
o The first nomads who occupied Central Asia came from the northern grasslands of present day
Uzbekistan
o They settled and formed the cities Samarkand and Bukhara
o By the turn of the twentieth century, the Russian Empire had complete control over Central Asia
until the formation of the Soviet Union
o Supreme Soviet of Uzbekistan declared the republic independent on August 31, 1991
o Today Uzbekistan is arguably the most powerful state in Central Asia
o Tajikistan is the smallest area to gain independence after the fall of the Soviet Union
o “Tajiks” are of Persian descent
o By the ninth century, Islam was the prevalent religion in the entire region
The Shashmaqam
o Maqam suites or cycles of music organized by melodic mode and meter
o Shashmaqam is a genre of music, typical of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
o The six maqams:
Buruk
Rast
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