Anth 002 Final Review.docx

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ANTH 002
Kirk French

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ANTH 002 Introduction toArchaeology Final Exam Study Guide i. Economies I. What we want to know about economic relations in the past: I. Acquisition II. Production III. Distribution IV. Consumption II. Specialization of Labor I. Specialization is a watershed in human history I. Hunting-gatherer and subsistence agriculturalist societies I. Every household does all the activities done in all the other households II. Households are self sufficient II. States I. Household and community self-sufficiency decreased II. Interdependence between households increased II. Specialization and labor in States I. Labor is bought and sold by some segments of society II. Some segments of society do not have sufficient landholdings to survive on their own I. (That is, they must rely on the goods ans services they provide others) III. But remember, in preindustrial societies the majority of people lived on the food the collected and raised themselves III. Exchange I. Exchange in different societies I. Bands and Tribes I. No fixed accounting of value or exchanges I. Although return may be in distant future II. freeloaders are not tolerated forever II. Can be constructed around social (kin) affiliation III. Almost always between people who know each other II. Chiefdoms I. Same kind of exchange as above II. Goods also given to chiefs and subsequently distributed by them I. Largely done to accompany important social or political transactions. (principal purpose of exchange is to seal agreements and relationships, not to exchange the items themselves) III. States I. Items have a negotiated or fixed value I. Strict accounting of exchanges II. Monetary systems are usually in place I. Ameans of transforming goods into an easily transferable, uniformly valued, and long-lasting form III. Often fixed places for exchanges of goods (store/marketplace) IV. Transactions are often between strangers, or people whose primary reason for contact is trade. II. Exchanges take places in particular contexts I. Often the symbolic content if an exchange- that is, its social, political, or ritual significance- is more important than the actual exchange of objects II. For example, gift giving on important occasions IV. What in the archaeological record provides information on economic systems? I. Artifacts II. Production Sites III. Elaborate Monuments IV. Occupational Specialists V. Means of distribution VI.Special Distribution Locations V. Artifacts I. Raw Material (source) II. Object I. production technology II. standardization III. production location VI.Production Sites I. Centralized production areas (workshops) indicate some degree of specialization II. People produce goods instead of growing all their own food VII. Elaborate Monuments I. Elaborate monuments can entail some degree of specialized labor II. people thus provide a service instead of growing their own food III. need to quantitatively assess demands on labor in monument construction because not all monumental architecture required a labor force partly of wholly dependent on other peoples products VIII. Occupational Specialists I. occupational indicate some degree of economic differentiation II. People produce goods and provide services rather than grow their own food IX.Distribution of Materials I. Provides information on the internal workings of societies II. Tells who had access to various kinds of goods I. disparity in distribution II. related to sociopolitical organization III. Existence of special markets or towns where goods where distributed I. not all societies have such places II. related to sociopolitical organization X. Distribution of Objects in Distant Places I. Indicate the existence of inter-regional exchange II. How exchange occurred is a tougher question I. fewer objects with greater distance are consistent with simple, inter- individual exchanges II. concentrations of foreign objects in important sites are consistent with control by key people or market economies III. but interpreting the distribution of objects is by no means simple XI.Example: Viking to early modern Ribe, Denmark I. Center of trade for a millennium th I. market place established early in 8 century on a stream bank II. about 1100 the town expanded to the opposite bank III. by the 13th century, there were three parishes on each bank IV. in the early modern era, the shallow harbor silted up, and the city dwindled in importance II. Viking times:Astructured market place I. Market area carefully laid out with plots oriented perpendicular to the river I. ditches at right angles to river separated individual plots II. Layer of sand laid down first, a major undertaking I. about 1300 cubic yards III. Road paralleled to river and divided plots into two rows IV. Craftsmen and merchants had their own fixed parcels of land III. Viking times: What took place I. Awell maintained meeting place I. plots were slowly raised as refuse accumulated, making the ditches more prominent II. occasionally, sand was laid down to make a clearer, more attractive, setting II. Aseasonal affair I. no evidence of permanent structures IV. Viking times: Indications of Importance I. Repeated, long-term use II. Many items from distant places III. Disproportionate representation of some objects I. about 150 silver coins (sceattas) II. only ca. 10 others have been found in Scandinavia IV. Coins may have been struck here I. 85% are Wodan/Monster coind II. in England and Frisia, such coins rarely make up more than 5% of those found XII. MiddleAges: Trade strictly controlled I. Trading activities not permitted outside of city gates I. 2 market places I. Horstorv and Fisketorv II. Could also be done through windows II. Taxed I. One shilling tax for each window scale II. Except where salt was sold III. Legislation regarding bakers I. Required to sell break in market places, but also permitted to do so through windows XIII. Exports: Indicative of the volume of Trade I. Livestock I. in the 13 century, ca. 8500 horses were exported annually II. at the start of the 16 century, customs records registered ca. 10,000 oxen annually III. on April 14, 1612, ca 2,000 oxen sailed on 47 ships II. Fish th I. records show fish were exported from the 13 century onward II. by royal privilege, Ribe merchants were exempt from duties at the Scanian herring market III. in 1602, 1.2 million flatfish were exported to Hamburg II. Grain, butter, meat, and tallow XIV. Imports: written and archaeological records I. Documents indicate numerous imports I. metal (iron, copper, silver, and lead), glass, clothes, spices, wine, beer, salt, and building stone II. many items, such as clothes and salt, were subsequently shipped elsewhere II. Archaeologically, much has disappeared I. ceramics and stone objects indicate commercial connections throughout western Europe II. Others, specifically Iron, are hard to trace to the source III. but it is still possible to detect evidence of wide-flung and important commerce from the items discovered XV. Ceramic Vessels: What they indicate I. Archaeologists normally place much weight on ceramics as an indication of trade I. potsherds survive long burial and are stylistically distinctive II. At Ribe, one half of the pottery from a harbor excavation was from foreign sources I. pottery from Italy, Spain, France, Belgian, Germany, and England II. Hardly and Baltic pottery III. Pottery was not brought to Ribe as an object of trade I. instead, they were more likely “souvenirs” or were used on board before they were lost or broken XVI. In short: I. Ribe was an important trading center for about 1,000 years II. Archaeological and documentary sources are complementary III. Important market places leave unambiguous archaeological signatures if excavations are adequate I. physical location are nature of facilities II. type and range of artifacts found ii. Warfare I. Principle Topics I. How is warfare identified II. An example:Norris Farms #36 in Illinois III. Another example: Crow Creek in South Dakota II. How is warfare identified? I. Skeletons I. Injuries II. Mutilation of bodies I. 16 Century engraving of Florida Indians II. Sergeant killed by Cheyenne in 1867 II. Defensive works I. Palisades th I. Late 16 century palisade village in coastal North Carolina II. Elaborate and strong fortifications around cities in early civilizations are much easier to detect III. Examples: I. Great Wall of China II. Assyrian fortress, Louvre III. Settlements in easily defended locations I. The Palenque Shelf easily defended location (Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico) IV. Weapons I. Many weapons are indistinguishable from everyday objects, especially those used in small-scale societies II. In ancient states, there might be specialized weaponry, armories, and barracks III. Specialized weaponry can be recognized by their discovery or their depiction on art V. Artwork I. Ancient Egyptian Temples I. Artwork shows Pharaoh killing enemies (Karnak, Egypt) II. Captives with bound arms III. Severed hands II. Trajan's Column I. commemorated Danubian campaigns II. burning settlements III. beheading captive IV. abducting woman and children III. An Example: Norris Farms #36 in Illinois I. Conflict related mortality at Norris Farms I. 16% of 264 individuals buried in a completely excavated cemetery were killed II. approximately 1/3 of all adults, both males and females, were killed III. some injuries were caused by celts, a common wood-working tool IV. Mutilation of bodies I. scalping II. decapitation and dismemberment V. Exposed bodies were eaten by scavenging animals VI.When found, bodies were returned for burial in the village cemetery I. often found as partially or completely decomposed bodies II. Mostly adults (>15 yrs) were killed III. people with disabilities were at increased risk IV. few people survived being scalped VII. Scattered graves indicate many separate attacks I. graves containing victims were scattered throughout the cemetery II. multiple individuals in the same grave were in the same state disarticulation IV. Another Example: Crow Creek in South Dakota I. The disarticulated remains of at least 500 people were found in a fortification ditch II. Skeletons showed signs of trauma III. incisions from scalping and broken stone point embedded in bone iii. Human Remains I. Why look at bones? I. Paleodemography II. Paleopathology III. Biological Relatedness IV. Warfare V. Activity Markers VI.Status Markers VII. Mortuary Practices II. What you do and what happens to you ca nleave an indelible mark on your skeleton or dentition for future people to read III. Principle Topics I. Paleodemography II. Cultural Practices III. HabitualActivities IV. Trauma I. Accidental II. Purposeful V. Paleopathology I. identifying specific diseases IV. Paleodemography I. Skeletal Sample Composition I. What do a group of skeletons represent? I. Accumulation of deaths over time II. catastrophic mortality event III. Deaths of a select group of people I. such as battle field deaths II. Look at the age distribution and the representation of the sexes III. What can they tell us about the group? I. For example- a community from which the skeletons were derived II. General mortality characteristics I. Life expectancy lower than today II. Largely because of high childhood , especially infant, mortality III. Adults also tended to die younger I. but there is a controversy about about adult mortality IV. Did many people survive beyond 50 years? I. Most paleodemographic results say no II. However, the abundance of deaths in the 20s through 40s may be an artifact of biased age-estimation methods III. Issue has yet to be resolved III. Mortality versus Living sample I. skeletons represent a select sample of all people who were of a certain age- estimation II. Mortality is selective I. everyone dies, but not everyone is at equal risk of death at a given age III. Cultural Practices and HabitualActivities I. Intentional Modification II. Normal age or activity related wear and tear IV. Meriwether Lewis on Northwest coast crainal deformation (March 19,1806) I. “the peculiar flatness and width of forehead which they artificially obtain by compressing the head between two boards while in a state of infancy” II. this is done in order to give a greater width to the forehead, which they much admire” V. Intentional Modification I. Chinese foot binding II. Tooth Filing (Africa) III. Chipping teeth (Philippines) IV. Tooth Removal (Australia) VI.Arthritis from normal wear and tear and trauma VII. More examples: I. Occlusal grooves on teeth (Great Basin) II. Pipe Damage (19 Century Switzerland) III. Interproximal grooves (India) IV. Betel nut discoloration (Saijud, Northern Marianas, Micronesia) VIII. Trephination (Peru) I. Squares made in the skull of Peruvian tribe members II. Many operations were successful, as indicated by Peruvian skulls III. Sometimes multiple operations IV. Accidental and Purposeful Trauma I. type of damage II. type of instrument III. location of injury V. Perimortem vs. partly healed fractures I. poor alignment results in a misshapen bone II. projectile points are sometimes embedded in bone III. healed depression fracture
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