[BB H 432] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (43 pages long)

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BB H 432
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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BBH 432 (1): The Concept of Stress I
Lecture 1
January 11th, 2017
I. Themes
A. Stress definition
B. Evolutionary origins and functions of the stress response
II. What does the word “stress” mean?
A. Pressure, tension, strain: exerted on a material object
B. Worry, anxiety, trouble, difficulty: a state of mental or emotional
strain resulting from adverse or very demanding circumstances.
C. Overstretch, push to the limit, pressure, make tense, worry,
harass: cause mental or emotional strain or tension in
D. Feeling of sudden fear, alarm, agitation, apprehension, cold feet,
dismay, distress, dread, fright, horror, nervousness, panic, scare,
tension, terror, trepidation, unease, uneasiness….
III. Ancient Stress
A. All organisms on this planet experience stress (all have the same
components of the HPA axis).
1. Not specific to humans
IV. Defining Stress
A. Stress Defined
1. Many meanings of the term: STRESS
a) Everyday use of stress actually “distress”
(1) Negative context
b) Stressor = actual event
c) Stress response = causes psychological, physiological
and behavioral response
B. Stress = an event that is perceived as threatening and that elicits the
physiological and behavioral responses associated with the stress
response
1. A threat to homeostasis
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2. Homeostasis: components of the internal environment of the
body that are required for life and must be maintained within a
narrow range for proper bodily functioning.
a) Systems that must be maintained: body temp., BP, heart
rate.
3. The stress response is a deviation from homeostasis AND the
processes that restore its balance.
C. Two types of stress: eustress (positive stress)
and
distress (negative
stress
),
roughly meaning challenge and overload. Both types may be
the result of negative or positive events. If a person both wins the
lottery and has a beloved relative die on the same day, one event does
not cancel the other---both are stressful events.
1. When the word stress is used alone, typically is is referring to
distress.
V. Stressors
A. Stressors = any factor that causes stress
B. There are two kinds: processive and systemic
1. Processive: elements in the environment (for ex. Snake, loud
noise, intense light) perceived by the organism as potential
dangers. Results in fight or flight response.
2. Systemic: physiological stress (injury, pain, etc. )
VI. Defining Fear, Stress, and Anxiety
A. Fear: physiological and psychological experience of
stress/threat/danger.
1. Specific to the immediate stress event (Type 1 Stressor)
2. Fear is universal; adaptive response
B. Anxiety: future-oriented state in which an individual anticipates the
possibility of threat and thereby experiences a sense of
uncontrollability associated with the threat (
Type II stressor).
C. Relationship between stress, fear, and anxiety
1. All are mediated by similar brain mechanisms
2. Produce the stress response
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