Ch. 14 Principles of Inheritance (Exam 3).docx

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Pennsylvania State University
BIOL 110

Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Principles of Inheritance: Chapter 14 I. What are the genetic principles that account for the transmission of our inherited traits? II. Overview of Mendel’s Experiments A. Why Did Mendel Choose Pea Plants? 1. Easily distinguishable traits 2. Previous observations about traits 3. Small, easy to grow in large numbers 4. Reproductive organs are enclosed within flowers that do not Experimental Procedures open III. Experiment #1 Experiment 1 A. True breeding- Successive generations display the same form of a trait as the parents B. Monohybrid cross- Genetic cross of two parents that differ with respect to one characteristic Alleles ~ 1 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . C. Allele- Alternative form of a gene D. Homozygous- Condition in which both alleles for a trait are the same E. Heterozygous- Condition in which the two alleles for a trait are different F. Dominant allele- An allele that masks the expression of a recessive allele G. Recessive allele- An allele that is only expressed in the absence of a dominant allele H. Genotype- Genetic makeup of an organism I. Phenotype- Observable trait of an individual J. Test cross- Genetic cross between a possible heterozygous Test Cross offspring and true-breeding recessive parent K. Conclusions 1. Alternative versions of genes account for variations in inherited characters 2. For each character, an organism inherits two alleles - one from each parent 3. Diploid organism has two pairs of homologous chromosomes 4. Each gene is represented twice 5. Alleles may be identical or different 6. If two alleles differ, then only one is fully expressed 7. Presence of an allele does not ensure that it will be expressed ~ 2 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . L. Law of Segregation 1. The two alleles for each character segregate during gamete production 2. Only one allele specifying a trait can be carried in a particular gamete and gametes combine randomly to form a zygote Law of IV. Experiment #2 Segregation A. True breeding parental (P) generation for two traits B. Dihybrid cross to produce F₁ generation C. Self-fertilization of F₁ individuals to produce F₂ generation D. Law of Independent Assortment 1. Genes located on different chromosomes are inherited independently of one another 2. Each pair of alleles segregates into gametes randomly V. Extensions of Mendelian Principles A. Incomplete dominance- Phenotype of offspring is intermedia
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