Ch. 5 Biological Molecules (Exam 1).docx

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BIOL 110

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Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Biological Molecules: Chapter 5 I. Carbohydrates a. Overview of Carbohydrates i. General functions ii. Structure & support iii. Energy storage & transfer b. Monosaccharides (Sugars) i. Glucose ii. Fructose iii. Galactose c. Disaccharides i. Maltose = Glucose + Glucose ii. Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Chloroplast Starch and Cellulose Starch granuleAmylopectin (aring structuresse (b) Starch: 1–4 linkage of  glucose monomers monomersulose: 1–4 linkage of  glucose  Glucose Amylose  Glucose 1 m 4 Glycogen granules 4 Mitochondria 1 iii. Lactose = Glucose + (b) Glycogen: 0.5 m Galactose an animal polysaccharide d. Polysaccharides i. Storage Polysaccharides 1. Glycogen ( a) Starch: 2. Starch a plant polysaccharide ii. Structural Polysaccharides 1. Cellulose 2. Chitin Glycogen ~ 1 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . II. Proteins a. Overview of Proteins i. Building blocks 1. Amino acids ii. Functions 1. 8 main categories b. Polypeptide- Polymer of amino acids arranged in a specific sequence Different combinations of 20 amino acids produce thousands of proteins Enzymatic proteins Enzyme Example: Digestive enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of bonds in food molecules. Function: Selective acceleration of chemical reactions Hormonal proteins Function: Coordination of an organism’s activities pancreas, causes other tissues to take up glucose, thus regulating blood sugar concentration High blood sugar blood sugar Insulin secreted c. Protein- One or more polypeptide chains folded and coiled into specific conformations Storage proteins Examples: Casein, the protein of milk, is the major Function: Storage of amino acidstorage proteins in their seeds. Ovalbumin is theve protein of egg white, used as an amino acid source for the developing embryo. Afor embryo minlbu Defensive proteins Virus Contractile and motor proteins Function: Movement Antibodies Function: Protection against disease Example: Antibodies inactivate and help destroy viruses and bacteria. 100 m Muscle tissue Actin Myosin ~ 2 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Examples: Motor proteins are responsible for the undulations of cilia and flagella. Actin and myosin proteins are responsible for the contraction of muscles. Examples: Keratin is the protein of hair, horns, feathers, and other skin appendages. Insects and spiders use silk fibers to make their cocoons and webs,
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