Ch. 22-23 Population Genetics and Natural Selection (Exam 4).docx

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BIOL 110

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Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Population Genetics and Natural Selection: Chapter 22-23 I. Genetic Structure A. Population- Localized group of individuals belonging to the same species B. Species- Group whose individuals have the potential to interbreed C. Gene pool- Total genes in a population D. Allele frequency- Frequency at which an allele occurs in a population E. Genotype frequency- Frequency at which a genotype occurs in a population II. Hardy-Weinberg Principle A. Equations: 1. Allele frequency: p + q = 1 2. Genotype frequency: p² + 2pq + q² = 1 B. Theorem 1. Frequencies of genotypes and alleles remain constant over generations unless acted on by some agent other than Mendelian segregation and recombination of alleles C. Inferences 1. Frequencies remain constant over time unless acted upon by agents other than sexual recombination 2. Shuffling of alleles due to meiosis and random fertilization has no effect on the overall genetic structure of a population D. Assumptions 1. Large population size 2. Isolation from other populations 3. No net mutations ~ 1 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . 4. Random mating 5. No natural selection III. Microevolution- Generation-to-generation change in the genetic structure of a population A. Forces of microevolution 1. Genetic drift- Change in the gene pool of a population due to sampling error Genetic Drift i. Bottleneck effect a. Population decline → Not all alleles present among survivors → Genetic diversity is reduced → Population increase → Genetic diversity remains ii. Founder effect a. Fraction of the parent population is isolated or colonizes a new location → New population has a non-representative sample of
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