Ch. 28 Kingdom Protista (Final Exam).docx

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BIOL 110

Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Kingdom Protista: Chapter 28 I. Overview of Protista A. Protista vs. Other Kingdoms 1. Protista is the most diverse kingdom 2. Differ from bacteria by being eukaryotic 3. Differ from Fungi, Plants, and Animals by lack of complex structures B. Major Groups of Protista 1. Protozoa - Animal-like protists 2. Algae - Plant-like protists 3. Slime Molds - Fungus-like protists C. General Characteristics 1. Eukaryotic cell structure 2. Single-celled, colonial, or simple multicellularity 3. Asexual and/or sexual reproduction 4. Numerous symbiotic relationships II. Multicellularity A. Multicellular- Composed of many cells that are permanently associated with one another and integrate their activities B. Single Cell → Colonial → Multicellular C. Advantages of Multicellularity 1. Maximize surface area to volume ratio 2. Specialization of cells for different tasks 3. Increased variation of cell types D. Colony- Collection of cells that are permanently associated but have little or no integration of activities E. Aggregation- Transient collection of cells that come together for short periods and then separate ~ 1 ~ Nostoc Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Oscillatoria Volvox Cyanobacteria F. Simple Multicellularity 1. Many cells that interact 2. Coordination of cellular activities 3. No cellular specialization G. Complex Multicellularity 1. Coordination of cellular activities 2. Cellular specialization III. Reproduction in the Protista A. Overview of Reproduction 1. Many forms of Protista are capable of asexual reproduction 2. Sexual reproduction is present in nearly all of the Protista 3. Many species have asexual and sexual options Method of Reproduction Advantage Environment Asexual Rapid production of Stable genetically identical individuals Sexual Production of genetically Changing variable individuals IV. Symbiotic Relationships in Protista ~ 2 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . A. Symbiosis- Condition in which two or more dissimilar organisms live together in a close association B. Types of Symbiosis 1. Mutualism ++ i. Trichonympha live in the guts of termites Trichonympha ii. Algae and fungus form lichens Lichens 2. Commensalism +0 3. Amensalism 00 4. Parasitism +- i. Trypanosoma: African sleeping sickness Trypansoma gambiense ii. Plasm odium: Malaria ~ 3 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . Plasmodium vivax iii. Giardia lamblia: Giardiasis 5. Herbivory +- 6. Predation +- V. Protozoans (animal-like) A. Protozoan Characteristics 1. Unicellular 2. Heterotrophic 3. Classified based on mode of locomotion 4. Four groups i. Sarcodines a. No permanent structure for locomotion 1. Pseudopod- Flowing projections of cytoplasm Pseudopod b. Asexual reproduction c. Two subgroups 1. Amoebas i. Characteristics: a. Free-living or parasitic b. No outer covering or shell ii. Examples: a. Amoeba proteus: Free-living b. Entamoeba histolytica: Amoebic dysentery in humans Amoeba ~ 4 ~ Biology 110 Dr. Peles Date: / / . 2. Foraminiferans i.
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