[BIOL 141] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (36 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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BIOL 141
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology Overview
Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy: morphology, structure, form
Physiology: function, how to body works
For lets futio happe
Characteristics of life:
Movement
Responsiveness
Growth
Reproduction
Respiration
Digestion
Absorption
Circulation
Assimilation (breakdown)
Excretion
Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions in an organism that support life
Requirements of life:
Food (sugar) and water
Oxygen
Pressure (respiration)
Heat (sun)
Homeostasis: the ody’s aiteae of a stale iteral eiroet
Example: internal temperature 98.6° F
Control center (set point) change is compared to set point effectors (muscles of glands) change is
corrected response stimulus, change occurs in internal environment receptors loop back to
control center
Levels of organization
Atoms: tiny particles making up chemicals; composed of subatomic particles
Molecule: atoms joined together
Macromolecules: molecules joined
Organelles: structures that carry out specific functions in cells
Cell: basic unit of structure and function
Tissue: assembled groups of similar cells that perform a specialized function
Organ: two or more tissues with specialized function
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Organ system: group of organs functioning together
Organism: interacting organ systems; individual living thing
Organ systems:
Integumentary system: body covering
Skeletal system: support and movement
Muscular system: support and movement
Nervous system: integration and coordination
Endocrine system: integration and coordination
Lymphatic system: transport
Digestion system: absorption and excretion
Respiratory system: absorption and excretion
Urinary system: absorption and excretion
Reproductive system: reproduction
Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry
Element: fundamental substance made of chemically identical atoms
The most abundant elements in the human body:
Oxygen (65%)
Carbon (18%)
Hydrogen (9.5%)
Nitrogen (3.2%)
Molecule: two or more atoms come together
O
HO
C₆HO₆
Trace elements: basic chemical substance needed in small quantity
Bond: link formed when an atom combines with another atom
Ionic bond: donation of an electron
NaCl- sodium atom has 1 electron in the outer orbital and it donates it to a chlorine
atom which has 7 electrons in its outer orbital (to achieve 8)
Covalent bond: sharing a pair of electrons
H
Polar molecule: unequal sharing of electrons
HO- oxygen is bigger and has more force that hydrogen, the hydrogens are slightly
positive and the oxygen is slightly negative
Hydrogen bonding: weak electrical attraction between neighboring molecules (forms and breaks
easily)
Water is cohesive and moderates temperature; it also pulls molecules apart (dissolving)
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