BIOL230W Exam 1 Material Exploration HW Review Weeks 1 to 2.doc

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Jennelle Malcos

BIOL230W Lecture Notes Fall 2013 1 Week 1 Material: Cellular Structure - Organelles • An organelle is a structure within a cell that has its own specialized function. • Some cell biologists only consider “organelles” to be those that contain DNA, like mitochondria and chloroplasts, which were believed to have become incorporated in the cell through endosymbiosis – a theory proposed by Lynn Margulis. A broader definition encompasses any compartmentalized structure within the cell that has its own function. Structure & Function of Organelles Organelle STRUCTURE FUNCTION Cell membrane Membrane-bound Selectively permeable; controls movement of ions/organic molecules in and out of the cell Nucleus Membrane-bound Information/control center of the cell, contains DNA, where RNA transcription occurs Golgi apparatus Membrane-bound Sorts/packages/modifies proteins Ribosomes Non-membrane bound Translates RNA into protein Vesicle Membrane-bound Transports material Cytoskeleton Non-membrane bound Important in intracellular movements and cell division Proteasome Non-membrane bound Degrades unnecessary or damaged proteins Cilia (Flagella) Non-membrane bound Moves/propels the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane-bound Smooth and rough ER; rough embedded with ribosomes and helps with protein folding; smooth involved in lipid metabolism/detoxification Mitochondria Membrane-bound Generates usable energy (ATP) from food to power the cell in cellular respiration Membrane-bound Captures energy from sunlight to produce Chloroplast energy-rich sugar molecules in photosynthesis Cell wall Non-membrane bound Structural support Vacuole Membrane-bound Stores and transports material Endomembrane System • The nuclear envelope, the ER, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, vesicles, endosomes, and cell membrane are a part of the endomembrane system • The major component of membranes are lipids. Not all organelles of the endomembrane system have the same lipid composition. The lipid composition can change several times throughout the membrane’s life. • The organelles are called a “system” because the different organelles are connected directly and exchange material through vesicles. They function together as a single unit. BIOL230W Lecture Notes Fall 2013 2 Week 2 Material: Cellular Structure – The Nucleus Key Terms • Nucleotide – basic building blocks of DNA and RNA, made up of a five-carbon sugar, phosphate
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