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Review Sheet for BIOL 240W Exam I.docx

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Pennsylvania State University

A. Form and Function 1. Functions of the ears in the Jackrabbit i. Absorb and release heat i. Blood vessels contract and expand so the jackrabbit doesn’t overheat ii. Provide acute sense of hearing 2. A definition of natural selection i. A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits 3. Meaning of “anatomy gives clues to physiology” i. The way bodies are formed can give glue to how they function ii. “Form and function” 4. Why evolution cannot make perfect organisms: i. environmental change ii. evolutionary history iii. limitations of the laws of physics iv. limits for maintaining essential physiological function 5. How the correlation of form and function can lead to an understanding of how an organism is adapted to its environment i. An animal’s form and function can show how the organism has adapted to its environment. Depending on the environment, certain characteristics may become more or less apparent in animals 6. What materials organisms must exchange with their environment i. Nutrients ii. Waste products iii. Gases 7. Differences in methods of exchange between single celled and more complex animals i. Single celled animals: body plans enable direct exchange between almost all their cells and the external environment (hydra); flat shape maximizes exposure to the surrounding medium ii. Complex animals: increasing the number of cells decreases the ratio of outer surface area to total volume 8. Definition and hierarchy of: i. Cells: form a functional animal body ii. Tissues: groups of cells with a similar appearance and common function iii. Organs: different types of tissues organized into functional units iv. Organ systems: groups of organs that work together 9. Types of animal tissue (names, form and function) i. Epithelial tissue i. Simple columnar epithelium: important in absorption and line intestines (secretes digestive juices and absorbs nutrients), has a large cytoplasmic volume ii. Stratified squamous epithelium: new cells are pushed outward and old ones slough off, found on surfaces subject to abrasion like the outer skin or lining of the esophagus (layered) iii. Simple squamous epithelium: functions in exchange of material by diffusion and lines blood vessels and air sacs of the lungs (thin and leaky) iv. Cuboidal epithelium: found in glands (dice shape cells specialized for secretion) v. Psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium: forms the mucus membrane of nasal passages and keeps mucus moving along the surface (ciliated) ii. Connective Tissue i. Blood: plasma—water, salts, dissolved proteins ii. Cartilage: strong and flexible, some is replaced by bone eventually iii. Adipose tissue: pads and insulates the body and stores fuels as fat molecules iv. Bone: supports the body v. Fibrous connective tissue: dense with collagenous fibers (tendons and ligaments) vi. Loose connective tissue: bind epithelial to underlying tissues and holds organs in place iii.Muscle Tissue i. Skeletal muscle: attached to bones by tendons; responsible for voluntary movements ii. Smooth muscle: found in walls of the digestive tract and other internal organs; responsible for involuntary body activities iii. Cardiac muscle: forms contractile wall of the heart; has fibers that interconnect via intercalated disks which help synchronize heart contraction iv. Nervous tissue i. Brain, neurons; functions in the receipt, processing and transmission of information 10. Differences between endocrine and nervous system i. Endocrine system: coordinates gradual changes that affect the entire body over a longer period of time ii. Nervous system: directs immediate and rapid responses to environment; affects specific places of the body over short periods of time 11. Meaning of the terms: i. Endothermic: warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism (birds and mammals) ii. Ectothermic: most heat is gained from external sources (amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates) iii.Poikilothermic: an animal whose body temperature varies with its environment iv. Homeothermic: an animal whose body temperature is relatively constant 12. Meaning of the terms i. Regulator: uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation ii. Conformer: allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes in the environment 13. What a temperature gradient is and why it is important 14. Different ways in which heat is transferred i. Radiation: the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero ii. Evaporation: the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas iii.Convection: the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface iv. Conduction: the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecules of objects in contact with each other 15. Specific adaptations to reduce or increase heat loss to the environment i. Vasodilation: widening of superficial blood vessels ii. Vasoconstriction: decreases the diameter of superficial blood vessels iii.Countercurrent exchange: the transfer of heat between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions iv. Panting/sweating 16. Why endotherms may still have to loose heat when air temperature is below body temperature i. So they don’t over heat B. Sensing 1. Be able to describe sensory processes from stimulus to integration using the correct terminology 2. Know the 5 main types of sensory receptors a. Mechanoreceptors: sense physical deformation caused by forms of mechanical energy such as pressure, touch, stretch, motion and sound b. Chemoreceptors: transmit information about total solute concentration and specific receptors c. Electromagnetic receptors: detect various forms of electromagnetic energy (visible light, electricity, and magnetism) d. Thermoreceptors: detect heat and cold; send information to the body’s thermostat e. Pain Receptors: extreme pressure or temperature as well as certain chemicals can damage animal tissues 3. Sensory adaptation and amplification a. Sensory adaptation: a decrease in responsiveness, after continued stimulation; enables you to see, hear and smell changes in the environment that vary widely in stimulus intensity b. Amplification: the strengthening of a sensory signal during transduction 4. What a sound is and why it needs to be perceived in order to make a noise a. A sound is the construction formed in the brain and does not exists outside it (perception) b. If a sound is not perceived it does not exist because a sound needs to be perceived in order to make a noise 5. General structure of axons and neurons C. Skeletons and Muscles 1. What are the specific challenges of locomotion in air, land, water, or within soil a. Air: enough lift to overcome gravity b. Land: enough leg muscle and balance c. Water: water and denser and more viscous than air d. Soil: even more denser and more viscous 2. Specific examples of how these challenges (1) are overcome by animals a. Air: low body mass, wing shape b. Land: leg muscles propel it and keep it from falling down c. Water: buoyant, streamline d. Soil: overcome friction 3. Form and function of the three muscle types found in the human body a. Skeletal muscle: moves bones and body; bundles of long fibers running parallel to the length of the muscle b. Cardiac muscle: heart; striated, muscle cells have ion channels in their plasma membrane that cause rhythmic depolarizations c. Smooth muscle: walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, digestive tract) 4. Describe how the function of muscle contraction depends on the structure of the sarcomere a. Sarcomere shortens during contraction (sliding-filament model) 5. Name the three functions of animal skeletons a. Support b. Protection c. Movement d. Regulation of calcium 6. Understanding and examples of the three main types of animal skeletons a. Hydrostatic skeletons: consists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment (worms) b. Exoskeletons: a hard encasement deposited on an animal’s surface (insects) c. Endoskeletons: hardened internal skeleton buried within soft tissues (humans) D. Nutrition 1. Four Broad Types of feeding mechanisms a. Suspension and Filter feeders: mainly aquatic animals; eat small organisms (clams) or filter water through a structure (whales) b. Substrate feeders: animals that live in or on their food source (caterpillar, maggots) c. Fluid feeders: suck nutrient rich food from a living host (mosquito, bees, hummingbirds) d. Bulk feeders: eat relatively large pieces of food (most animals, including humans) 2. Differences between malnourishment and undernourishment a. Malnourishment: a failure to obtain adequate nu
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