Principles of Multimedia Journalism Final Exam Notes [COMPLETE] -- I 4.0ed this course

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COMM 271

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COMM 271 NOTES ▯1 August  27,  2012:   What  is  convergence?   -­‐ it  is  the  emergence  of  common  platforms  and  common  tools  so  that  every  news   organization  has  the  same  toolkit    available  for  telling  stories   -­‐ it  is  not  collaboration  between  different  news  organizations     -­‐ it  is  a  tool   -­‐ it  allows  multiple  aspects  of  communication  to  be  combined  and  used  to  a  bene▯it   ▯ What  is  a  platform?   -­‐ a  tool  for  disseminating  information   -­‐ examples:  print,  radio,  TV,  online,  mobile   -­‐ if  reporter,  you  don’t  just  work  for  one  of  those   ▯ What  is  multimedia?   -­‐ it’s  the  journalist  toolkit:  audio,  video,  text  (hyperlinking),  interactive  graphics,  games,   comics  (graphic  novels),  databasing  (giant  database  of  the  news  and  how  people  are  using   the  news)     ▯ How  is  multimedia  being  used?   -­‐ four  videos,  all  produced  by  students   ▯ August  29,  2012:   Philip  Meyer:  Newspaper  of  the  Future   How  did  people  get  news?     -­‐ Meyer  researched  news  consumption  habits   -­‐ 15-­‐30  minutes  a  day  of  news  on  average,  but  moved  away  from  physical  newspaper   platform  because  of  the  modernization.   -­‐ With  the  addition  of  every  platform,  newspaper  went  down   -­‐ 1929:  no  competition   -­‐ 1929-­‐1945:  radio  was  added   -­‐ 1945-­‐64:  small  televisions  were  added     -­‐ 1964-­‐present:  TV  internet   -­‐ Meyer:  “As  the  years  go  by,  each  generations  keeps  roughly  the  same  reading  habit  that  it   had  established  by  the  time  it  reached  voting  age.”   -­‐ De▯initely  don’t  want  to  be  platform  speci▯ic.  Diversity  in  audio,  video,  photography,  text.   Can  still  specialize.   -­‐ Meyer  makes  three  key  points:   -­‐ Niche  audiences  are  a  fact.   -­‐ Audiences  were  becoming  more  specialized  in  1966.  Special  interest   magazines  were  beginning  to  do  better  than  weekly  magazines.  Meyer  says   that  media  became  better  at  dealing  with  specialty  audiences.   -­‐ Reader  trust  pays  off.   -­‐ In  2008,  he  took  these  points  and  predicted  newspapers  would  move  away  from   daily  print  publications.   ▯ Platforms  and  audience   ▯1 COMM 271 NOTES ▯2 -­‐ Readers  choose  news  platforms  about  the  time  they  reach  voting  age   -­‐ The  challenge  for  publishers:  Reading  multiple  audiences  across  multiple  platforms   -­‐ Accuracy  is  a  big  deal:  integrity  and  honesty   -­‐ Most  aren’t  assuming  that  you  are  platform  exclusive,  just  platform  favored   ▯ News  velocity:  the  time  it  takes  for  news  to  travel   -­‐ example:  the  ▯iring  of  JoePa   ▯ August  31,  2012   Common  Challenges:   -­‐ Serving  two  kinds  of  readers:   -­‐ time-­‐starved  reader   -­‐ information  starved  reader   ▯ The  Advantage  of  Print   -­‐ the  power  of  page  design   -­‐ the  power  of  the  page  one  story  that  is  supposed  to  capture  everyone   -­‐ the  serendipitous  read   ▯ The  Advantage  of  Online/Mobile   -­‐ page  views,  unique  users   -­‐ “cookies”   -­‐ A  bigger  toolkit   -­‐ online  has:  text/hyperlinks,  still  photos,  audio,  video,  interactive  graphics,   databasing   -­‐ “unlimited”  space  and  audience   -­‐ there  really  is  no  limit  to  how  much  you  can  write   -­‐ the  only  limit  is  really  the  attention  span  of  users  and  as  a  journalist,  how  long  you  have  to   write  content.   -­‐ allows  the  reader  to  see  and  hear  and  read  a  speech.   -­‐ people  are  willing  to  listen  to  something  and  read  along  if  they  are  interested  in  it.   ▯ September  5,  2012   The  Challenge:  Innovate  or  Die   -­‐ A  really  big  question  (Yahoo  news)   -­‐ Is  it  okay  to  make  mistakes?   -­‐ Solution  one:  change  the  way  that  we  report  the  news.   -­‐ Take  a  proven  reporter  who  is  willing  to  take  risks,  personal  risks.  (Kevin   Sites)   -­‐ Experienced  war  correspondent,  best  known  for  a  story  he  did  while  in  with   a  Marine  group  and  ▯ilmed  a  mercy  killing.   -­‐ “Kevin  Sites  in  the  Hot  Zone”   -­‐ The  goal:  if  we  execute  this  the  right  way,  it  is  a  great  ▯irst  step  to  show   people  how  we  can  present  content  in  a  different  kind  of  way  than  TV.   -­‐ Success:  Yahoo  pulled  ahead  of  rival  MSNBC,  garnering  31.4  million  unique   visitors  per  month  compared  to  25.9  million.   ▯2 COMM 271 NOTES ▯3 -­‐ Hot  Zone  project  was  pulled  from  Yahoo  and  it  won  no  award.   -­‐ Yahoo  News  and  Sites  did  not  give  up  (backpack  journalist)   -­‐ They  came  up  with  a  new  idea:  People  of  the  Web   -­‐ Lesson  learned:  stories  without  substance  don’t  sustain  audience   -­‐ Content  is  more  important  than  the  reporter   -­‐ New  strategy:  Real  investigative  reporting   -­‐ Miami  story   -­‐ Solution  two:  technology   -­‐ The  CueCat   -­‐ little  cat  shaped  device  that  reads  bar  codes  on  the  bottom  of  newspapers   -­‐ “fails  to  solve  a  problem  which  never  really  existed”   -­‐ one  of  the  “25  worst  products  of  all  time”   -­‐ “#1  worst  invention  of  the  2000s  decade”   -­‐ Investors  lost  18  million   -­‐ The  QR  code  (cell  phone  barcode  scanner)   -­‐ 7  percent  of  the  people  who  clicked  a  QR  code  bought  a  Loreal  product   -­‐ Heinz,  1  million  people  clicked  on  QR  codes  placed  on  ketchup  bottles  to   learn  more  about  ketchup   -­‐ Solution  three:   -­‐ What  have  we  learned?   -­‐ It’s  okay  to  make  a  mistake  as  long  as  we  learn  from  it  and  don’t  make  the  same   mistake  again.   -­‐ The  digital  audience  response  is  immediate.   ▯ September  7,  2012   Historic  Advantages  of  Print   -­‐ The  power  of  page  design   -­‐ The  “serendipitous”  read   -­‐ The  low  cost  of  newsprint   -­‐ The  evolution  of  style:  a  more  ef▯icient  way  of  communicating  with  the  audience   -­‐ A  design  created  for  skimming   -­‐ Standardized  spellings   -­‐ Use  of  the  world  “said”  for  attribution   -­‐ A  daily  record  of  history   ▯ A  record  of  history   -­‐ The  triangle  shirtwaist  ▯ire   ▯ The  importance  of  objectivity   -­‐ “Objective”  reporting  is  a  relatively  new  concept   -­‐ The  pressure  to  be  objective  is  largely  driven  by  market  forces,  primarily  the  goal  of   creating  a  mass  audience   ▯ The  print  cycle   -­‐ The  rhythm  of  print  production   -­‐ Good  or  bad?  -­‐-­‐speed/accuracy/context   ▯3 COMM 271 NOTES ▯4 -­‐ Good  or  bad?  Audience  engagement   -­‐ Good  or  bad?  Design  shortcuts  such  as  the  inverted  pyramid  and  one  column  headlines   ▯ The  impact  of  Watergate   -­‐ Lesson  learned:  objective  reporting  can  take  down  a  President   -­‐ Impact:  inspired  a  whole  generation  to  go  to  college  and  learn  how  to  be  reporters   ▯ The  separation  of  church  and  state   -­‐  The  independence  of  editorial  content  from  advertising   ▯ Will  newspapers  survive?   -­‐ Butter▯ield:  newspapers  have  failed  to  invest  in  the  future  through  training  and  R&D   -­‐ Newspapers  are  funneling  scarce  resources  into  print   ▯ September  10,  2012   The  importance  of  objectivity   -­‐ Objective  reporting  is  a  relatively  new  concept   -­‐ The  pressure  to  be  objective  is  largely  driven  by  market  forces,  primarily  the  goal  of   creating  a  mass  audience   -­‐ Accuracy  is  also  part  of  the  equation   -­‐ The  rising  value  of  objective  reporting  was  not  happening  in  a  vacuum   ▯ Objectivity  and  photography   -­‐ Photography  was  a  depiction  of  “reality”   -­‐ Example:  Timothy  O’Sullivan  and  the  American  Civil  War   -­‐ created  a  representation  of  reality.  His  photos  were  more  accurate  than  the   illustrations  of  the  day,  but  he  was  willing  to  rearrange  items  in  a  photograph  to   make  it  more  accurate.   -­‐ He  took  studio  cameras  into  the  ▯ield.   -­‐ Matthew  Brady:  preeminent  portrait  photographer  in  NYC.   -­‐ ▯irst  press  pass,  letter  from  the  President  to  go  to  war  and  take  pictures   -­‐ Jacob  Riis  covered  the  police  in  NYC,  which  brought  him  into  the  city’s  tenements,  where   he  discovered  people  living  in  appalling  conditions.  His  stories  had  little  impact,  so  he   turned  to  photography.   -­‐ Lewis  Hine  was  a  school  teacher  who  moved  to  NYC  and  discovered  photography.   -­‐ not  just  kids,  he  photographed  the  glory  of  modern  man  in  the  Machine  Age.   -­‐ and  the  construction  of  the  Empire  State  Building.   -­‐ he  switched  from  glass  plates  to  ▯ilm  so  his  camera  gear  would  be  lighter  and  more   portable.   -­‐ Dorothea  Lange  was  recruited  by  Roy  Stryker  to  work  for  the  Farm  Security  Administraion   to  document  the  plight  of  American  workers  during  the  Great  Depression.   -­‐ Women  like  herself  and  Marion  Post  Wolcott  introduced  a  different  way  of  seeing   to  photography.  Rather  than  being  mere  observers  of  events,  they  moved  closer  to   their  subjects   -­‐ War  photographer  Robert  Capa  brought  Life  magazine  readers  inside  combat.   -­‐ his  reputation  depended  on  not  having  a  reputation  for  setting  up  photos.   ▯4 COMM 271 NOTES ▯5   -­‐  used  miniature  35mm  roll  ▯ilm  cameras   -­‐ Joe  Rosenthal  almost  didn’t  get  this  picture  because  he  was  shooting  with  a  press  camera   that  used  4x5  sheet  ▯ilm.   -­‐ Carol  Guzy  won  the  Pulitzer  four  times.  Columbia,  Haiti,  Kosovo,  Haiti.   -­‐ successfully  made  the  transition  from  B  and  W  to  color  photography.   -­‐ The  power  of  still  photography  was  huge  on  public  consciousness.   -­‐ Point  of  view   -­‐ Embracing  technology   -­‐ Accuracy   ▯ September  12,  2012   Radio   -­‐ Telling  stories  with  sound   -­‐ Radio  news  is  much  more  immediate   -­‐ Passive  v.  active  engagement   -­‐ A  clear  voice  is  important,  but  radio  news  is  really  about  effective  writing   -­‐ Ronald  Reagan,  a  president  known  as  the  great  communicator,  got  his  start  as  a  radio   broadcaster  at  WOC  in  Davenport,  Iowa,  and  WHO  in  Des  Moines   -­‐ Best  known  for  recreating  baseball  games  off  the  telegraph  wire   -­‐ Edward  R.  Murrow  brought  WWII  into  living  rooms  across  US   -­‐ Reporting  during  an  air  raid  from  Trafalgar  Square   -­‐ The  Nazi  death  camp  at  Buchenwald   -­‐ An  effective  tool  for  explaining  complex  issues   -­‐ It  depends  on  how  you  de▯ine  “radio”  because  the  audience  is  moving  to  online/mobile   -­‐ Most  over  the  air  broadcasts  are  heard  in  cars   ▯ Sept  14,  2012   Television  news   -­‐ Hybrid:  television  news  marries  audio  and  images  into  a  combination  that  spelled  the   doom  of  news  magazines  and  radio.   -­‐ Licensing:  as  part  of  the  process  needed  to  get  a  federal  broadcast  license,  televisions   stations  are  required  to  report  the  news.   -­‐ Breaking  news:  in  a  time  of  crisis,  television  became  the  platform  Americans  turned  to  for   information   -­‐ Reporter-­‐centric:  building  a  relationship  between  the  audience  and  on  air  reporters  and   anchors   -­‐ Television  stories  that  mesmerized  the  country:  Viewers  discover  CNN  during  the  ▯irst   Gulf  war.   -­‐ Former  CNN  pres  Tom  Johnson  recalls  thinking  his  entire  staff  could  be  killed   during  the  ▯irst  night  of  Operation  Desert  Storm.   -­‐ CNN  producer  Ingrid  Formanek  recalls  resisting  the  pressure  from  both  Iraq  and   the  US  to  become  a  voice  for  propaganda.   -­‐ The  JFK  shooting  coverage  demonstrated  that  television  could  do  a  good  job  of  covering  a   major  event  live.   -­‐ Cable  news  rose  to  prominence  with  the  US  attack  on  Baghdad   ▯ ▯5 COMM 271 NOTES ▯6 ▯ ▯ ▯ September  24,  2012   New  material:     Takeaways  from  "Not  Forgotten"   -­‐  it's  important  to  share  the  emotion  because  that  makes  people  in  the  stories  real.     -­‐  it  is  important  to  give  a  voice  to  people  who  the  community  doesn't  know.     -­‐  it  is  important  for  the  community  to  know  that  the  media  cares.     -­‐  focus  on  people,  not  the  crime.  Ask  honest  questions.     ▯ Takeaways  from  ONA12.     -­‐  fully  engaged  audience.  People  who  really  want  to  know  how  to  do  a  better  job.     -­‐  a  group  learning  from  mistakes  and  successes.     -­‐  vibrant  and  growing  industry.     -­‐  consistently  sold  out  conference  and  always  growing     -­‐  innovation  is  happening  on  the  digital  side  of  news.  Journalists  are  taking  risks.     -­‐  motivated  students  who  embrace  technology  are  making  a  mark  on  the  professional  side   of  the  news  industry.     ▯ September  26,  2012   Telling  stories  online     -­‐  breaking  news  (we  want  basic  information  about  the  story  ▯irst)   -­‐  two  types  of  stories     -­‐  event  based  reporting  (breaking  news  =  substantial  web  traf▯ic)   -­‐  enterprise  journalism     -­‐  covering  breaking  news  isn't  as  easy  as  it  appears         September  28,  2012   Story  arc   -­‐ Describes  the  relationship  between  the  audience’s  need  for  info  and  the  methods  used  by   news  organizations  to  deliver  it.   -­‐ How  a  story  is  covered  varies  according  to  the  arc  of  the  story.   -­‐ Story  arc  varies  according  to  what  platform  news  consumers  are  using  to  get  info  and   differences  in  news  velocity.   -­‐ As  the  story  moves  through  arc,  reporters  and  editors  balance  4  news  story   characteristics:   -­‐ speed   -­‐ accuracy   -­‐ clarity   -­‐ context   -­‐ Options  at  the  beginning  of  the  story  arc:   -­‐ Use  social  media  to  let  your  audience  know  that  you  are  covering  the  story.  Post   coverage  on  online  and  mobile  sites  and  share  links  to  coverage.   -­‐ From  your  main  site,  link  to  the  best  version  of  the  story.  Then  try  to  make  sure  the   best  version  is  a  story  reported  on  your  site.   ▯6 COMM 271 NOTES ▯7 -­‐ Best  storm  form  for  a  story  at  the  beginning  of  the  arc:  A  news  blog  with  time   stamp  updates.   -­‐ Add  multimedia  as  it  becomes  available.   -­‐ As  the  story  nears  the  peak  of  the  arc:   -­‐ Audience  expectation  is  changing.  Viewers  know  the  basic  facts.  Now  production   quality  becomes  more  important.  Move  away  from  the  news  blog  format  and   develop  a  more  conventional  story  that  ranks  elements  according  to  news  value.     -­‐ Post  updated  versions  of  the  story  to  improve  context  and  clarity.   -­‐ As  the  story  nears  the  end  of  the  arc:   -­‐ Audience  expectations  continue  to  change.  Speed  is  less  of  an  issue.  Production   value  and  story  telling  are  more  important.   -­‐ The  longer  the  distance  from  the  peak  of  the  arc,  the  more  dif▯icult  it  is  to  attract  an   audience  unless  you  can  demonstrate  that  the  presentation  has  more  than  the   basic  facts.   -­‐ As  the  arc  descends,  news  orgs  need  to  be  careful  not  to  commit  resources  to   producing  reports  that  will  no  longer  attract  an  audience.   -­‐ Event  based  reporting   -­‐ Breaking  news  can  create  substantial  web  traf▯ic,  but  it  usually  has  a  short  arc  and   limited  shelf  life.   -­‐ Enterprise  journalism   -­‐ More  dependent  on  quality  content  and  production  from  the  beginning  to  attract   and  sustain  audience.  These  stories  are  designed  to  have  a  longer  arc.   -­‐ A  note  about  audience  metrics   -­‐ Most  online  stories  have  a  short  life.     -­‐ Stories  with  exceptional  content  will  continue  to  get  audience  for  a  longer  period  of   time.   -­‐ Enterprise  stories  that  can  be  re-­‐inserted  into  ongoing  coverage  are  more  likely  to   have  a  long  tail.   ▯ ▯ October  2,  2012   Guest  speaker:  Julie  Bykowicz   -­‐ She  frequently  produces  4  versions  of  a  story:   -­‐ A  stripped  down  version  for  Bloomberg  terminal  readers   -­‐ More  developed  story  for   -­‐ Features  an  interesting  part  of  story  on  Political  Capital  blog   -­‐ Recaps  the  story  in  a  30  sec  stand-­‐up  for  Bloomberg  TV   -­‐ In  addition,  she’ll  tweet  a  link  to  the  story.   -­‐ Social  media   -­‐ She  uses  Twitter  as  her  professional  social  media  identity  and  Facebook  to   communicate  with  real  friends   -­‐ On  Twitter  she  tweets  links  to  stories  by  other  reporters  that  may  be  of  interest  to   her  followers  and  tweets  links  to  her  own  work.   -­‐ She  generally  doesn’t  quote  tweets,  but  she  uses  them  to  research  potential  leads   and  ▯ind  stories.   -­‐ Anytime  she  writes  or  reads  a  story  she  tries  to  brainstorm  two  related  story  ideas.   ▯7 COMM 271 NOTES ▯8 -­‐ She  tries  to  increase  the  online  lifespan  of  her  enterprise  stories  by  writing  follow-­‐up   pieces  that  cover  the  reaction  to  the  story   -­‐ She  never  expresses  political  opinions  on  social  media  because  it  is  important  for  her  not   to  appear  to  favor  a  particular  viewpoint   -­‐ She  is  especially  careful  to  verify  info  found  on  social  media   ▯ Ethics   -­‐ Deception  in  a  digital  environment   -­‐ Brian  Walski,  LA  Times,  embedded  in  Iraq,  doubled  the  background  of  a  photo   -­‐ Allan  Detrich:  2008  ▯inalist  for  Pulitzer
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