Comm 320 Exam 3 Study Guide

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Pennsylvania State University
COMM 320
Lee Ahern

Exam 3 Study Guide | COMM 320 | Dr. Ahern 1. Measuring campaign effectiveness a. Measurement: assigning numbers to observations according to specific rules b. Types of research methods i. Qualitative 1. Focus groups 2. One-on-one interviews 3. Observation 4. Word association 5. Drawing / collages a. NO NUMBERS IN DATA! ii. Quantitative 1. Surveys a. Random samples of audiences 2. Experiments a. Allows researcher to control for other variables 3. Lab vs. Field a. Lab: more control/lacks validity b. Field: less control/more validity iii.Relationship between correlation and causation 1. Correlation is not causation 2. Experimental method provides strongest support for causal relationships (because the researcher can control for and rule out other variables that may be causing or affecting observed relationships) c. Typical measurement factors i. Advertising production 1. Media placements 2. Program rating / share 3. Cost per thousand (CPM) 4. Cost per point (CPP) 5. Number of different ad executions ii. Awareness / knowledge / attitude change / intention 1. Brand awareness 2. Brand feature knowledge 3. Attitude toward the brand 4. Increased intention to purchase iii.Behavioral outcomes 1. Increased sales 2. Website visits 3. Coupons redeemed iv. Behavioral measures 1. Cost per Order (CPO): allows for comparison of different advertising channels or programs to see which is more efficient in getting orders a. Cost / Orders = CPO 2. Return on Investment (ROI): allows for direct comparison of all types of investments a. (Gain – Cost) / Cost = ROI d. Physiological Measures i. Pupil Dilation: designed to measure dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eyes in response to stimulation. 1. Dilation suggests a stronger interest in an ad or implies arousal or attention-getting capabilities; very costly. ii. Galvanic Skin Response: measures the skin’s resistance or conductance to a small amount of current passed between 2 electrodes 1. Response to stimuli activates sweat glands, which in turn increases the conductance of the electrical current; might reflect a reaction to advertising. iii.Brain waves iv. Eye tracking: more commonly used, in which viewers are asked to view an ad while a sensor aims a beam of infrared light at the eye 1. The beam follows the movement of the eye and shows the exact spot where the viewer is looking and for how long; can identify strengths and weaknesses 2. Advertising and promotion regulation a. Basic levels of regulation i. Natural market forces 1. Tend to regulate advertising through “hands off” (“laissez faire”) approach 2. Assumes quality products and good advertising will prevail and bad products and deceptive advertising will fade away 3. Problem: market forces take time to work, allowing bad actors to victimize consumers in the short run ii. Private policy 1. Advertisers and agencies internal regulatory policies 2. Media Clearances a. Broadcasters are awarded licenses by the Federal Communications Commission based in art on how well they “serve public interest, convenience and necessity” b. CBS decided to air the Tim Tebow “pro-life” ad during the 2010 Superbowl, but not a gay dating website commercial c. Many agencies have private policies about what they will and won’t do iii.Organized market forces 1. Professional association self-regulation 2. Boycotts and protests 3. Many associations (American Bar Association, American Medical Association) have rules about what/how members can advertise 4. While ostensibly to protect consumers from unscrupulous practitioners, these laws more often limit competition 5. These types of advertising restrictions are no longer legal (Supreme Court decisions) iv. Self-regulatory forces 1. Industry self-regulation: function is to investigate complaints about advertising 2. Most cases involve claim substantiation, evaluating whether the advertiser had enough information or a good justification for making a claim 3. The idea of “enlightened self interest”, whereby industries regulate themselves to avoid government intervention a. Example: movie ratings (G,PG,R…) 4. Does not involve the government v. Governmental forces 1. The most coercive type of regulation 2. Federal Trade Commission: adjudicates complains form competitors, consumers or any other source (FTC staff) on a case-by-case basis. b. Advertising self regulatory forces i. National Advertising Review Council (NARC): decisions are non-binding 1. Formed by American Advertising Federation (AAF), American Association of Advertising Agencies (AAAA) and Association of National Advertisers (ANA) ii. National Advertising Division (NAD) of the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) 1. Operates through a. National Advertising Review Board (NARB) i. Main self-regulatory body for advertising industry b. Children’s Advertising Review Unit (CARU) i. Focuses on advertising to minors iii.The NARC operates in cooperation and conjunction with the NAD to self-enforce standards of advertising fairness and decency 1. The NARB adjudicates cases but compliance with findings is voluntary; the NARB cannot fine or enforce findings 2. Parties to NARB disputes can still sue in court if they do not agree with findings a. Most court cases involving advertising fairness are filed under the Lanham Act, which modified the F
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