CRIM 012H Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Control Theory, Human Nature, Self-Control

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8 Nov 2016
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Self and Social Control Theories 11/8/2016 2:47:00 AM
Assumptions
Human nature is hedonistic: natural “drives” to gain pleasure and
minimize pain
Reverses the traditional question in criminology, “What makes
people commit crimes?” Instead control theory starts with the
question, “Why don’t people commit crimes?
Control theory assumes that everyone would deviate if given the
chance and will unless they are controlled
Therefore, the motivation to commit deviance is not problematic, it
doesn’t require explanation. Motivation for deviance is assumed to
be constant across all individuals
Social Bonding Theory (Hirschi, 1969)
KEY IDEA: The source of morality and pressures for conformity are
in the bond between the individual and conventional society
The stronger the social bond, the stronger the social control, and
the greater pressures for conformity
Stakes in conformity are the elements of the social bond, and are
the links between the individual and conventional society
o This idea sheds light on the age-street crime relationship.
Criminal involvement is the highest among age groups with
lowest stakes in conformity
o Links well with social disorganization theory
Four stakes in conformity
Attachment: Emotional ties, interpersonal relationships with
conventional others. How strong are they?
o How much value does a person place in conventional others
opinions?
o Altruism: one does not want to hurt/disappoint those one
cares about by committing crimes
Commitment: control theory views commitment as the rational
investments or “social capital” one has conventional society, and
that one risks if involved in crime
o Things that increase commitment:
Educations
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