# [GEOG 020] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (39 pages long!)

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7 Feb 2017
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PSU
GEOG 020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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The Greeks first classified geography as a study and a science. Eratosthenes is credited with being the
first to use the world geography
Scale - the relationship between a portion of the Earth and the Earth as a whole
Types:
Fractional - shows the numerical ratio between distances on a map and the Earth’s
surface
1:24,000 or 1/24,000; 1 refers to the distance on the map and 24,000 represents
the same unit of distance on the Earth’s surface
Written - describes the relationship between a map and the Earth distances in words
1 inch equals i mile
Graphic - involves a bar line that is marked to show the distance on the Earth’s surface
A map of the world has the smallest scale. The largest scale is a map of a city.
Projection - transferring locations on Earth’s surface to a flat map; causes
distortion
Equal-area projections - keep area but distort shapes
ex) Goodes-Homsoline projection
Conformal maps - keep shapes, but distorts area
ex) Lambert’s conic projection, Mercator projection - all lines of latitude and longitude meet at
right angles, creating distortion at the polar regions, Peter’s projection
Forms of maps
Cylindrical - shows true direction but not distance
ex) Mercator map
Planar (azimuthal) - shows true direction and examines from one point on a map
ex) polar projections (examining from the North or the South poles)
Conic - keeps distance but loses direction
Oval - combines cylindrical and
conic
ex) Molleweide projection
Other Types of maps
Thematic maps - used to
determine geographic properties
through symbols, images, colors, or
patterns
Flow-line maps - used to
determine movement, such as migration
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Choropleth maps - used to determine demographic data through colors or patterns,
such as infant mortality rates
Cartograms - chart and assign data by size, such as world population - China would
appear the largest on the map, followed by India, the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil
Toponym - the name given to a place on Earth
Site - the physical characteristics of a place
Situation - the location of a place relative to other places (think of connections; how well-connected or
poorly-connected a place is to other areas)
Regionalization - organization of the Earth’s surface into specific regions that are differentiated from
others in the same area
Formal Regions - regions where everything inside has the same characteristic or phenomena;
homogeneity
Ex) political zones, language, cultural traits, production of a particular crop, similar climate
Examples of Regions - Germany, Montana, the Corn Belt (Midwestern states), the Wheat Belt
(Great Plains region), Montana
Functional Regions - are defined around a node or focal point, where the characteristic is most
dominate at the center and diminishes the as distance increases from the center - distance decay (think
of the Gravity Model)
Ex) radio/television stations, shopping malls, circulation area of a newspaper
Vernacular Regions - exist in an individual’s perception or feelings by means of a mental map - an
internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface
Ex) perception of where the South/Midwest starts and ends
Humans cannot live in places that are too hot, too cold, too wet, too dry, and too hilly. (Does not
entirely apply due to advances in technology and engineering)
Diffusion - the process by which a characteristic spread from one place to another over time, originating
from a hearth or several hearths
Types of Diffusion
Relocation Diffusion - the physical spread of cultures, ideas, languages, religions, and diseases
through the migration of people
Expansion Diffusion - the spread of a characteristic from one place to another in a snowballing
process
Hierarchical Diffusion - the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authorities to
common society ex) clothing trends, fashion
Contagious Diffusion - the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout
the population ex) *disease, influenza, information through the Internet
Stimulus diffusion - the spread of an underlying principle rather than the major
principle ex) vegetarian McDonalds in India, mouse-based computers
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