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GEOSC 020 TEST 1 REVIEW CHAPTERS 1-4 Chapter 1: 1.0 The nature of Geology - Geology Definition: Factors such as climate and the availability of water, that are critical to ecosystems 1.1 What controls the distribution of natural resources? - Where the rocks creating these natural resources deposit themselves, or where magma invaded. - AGE OF ROCKS AND HOW THEY FORMED 1.3 What is inside Earth? - Crust - Oceanic: Average composition that is the same as basalt (dark lava)(4 mi) - Continental: Average composition similar to granite. Thin, light-gray layer (20-25 mi) - Mantle: Composed of green mineral olivine - Core: Outer core is molten while the inner core is solid - Why do some regions have higher elevations? - Thickness of crust: Regions that have high elevation generally have thick crust - Isostasy: Relationship between crustal thickness and elevation - The thicker the block, the higher the block - Control elevation of Earth’s surface 1.6 What can happen to a rock? - Rock Cycle: Transport-Burial-Uplift Chapter 2: 2.1 What can we observe in landscapes? - Color: Oxidation - Erosion: Talus - Layering: Law of Superposition - Shapes of Rock - Fracturing and cracks 2.2 How do we determine the sequence of past geologic events? - Relative age of rock layers (youngest to oldest, top to bottom) - Shape and sharpness of rocks and pebbles - Cross cutting relations: Faults (EX: YELLOWSTONE) - Layers form horizontally - Folded - Fracture - Shifted Chapter 3: Plate tectonics -Plates: Large, continent sized slabs that break up the lithosphere - History of Plate Tectonics - Alfred Wegener’s Theory of continental drift: Pangaea - Evidence: Trans Atlantic Connection(Coal deposits and mountain ranges matching up), Rock ages/geologic history, and fossils - 1960s Theory of Plate Tectonics - Evidence: Sea Floor Spreading (magma rises at the ridge, cools, creates new crust and pushes floor apart); Paleomagnetism (Rock ages mirror one another from opposite countries/continents); Convection (Movement of mass due to changes in its density caused by gain or loss of heat); Plate boundaries 3.4 How do plates move relative to one another? 1. Divergent: Two plates move apart relative to one another. In most cases, magma fills the space between the plates. 2. Convergent: Two plates move toward one another. A typical result is that one plate slides under the other 3. Transform: Two plates move horizontally past one another. 3.5 What happens at a divergent boundary? (CONSTRUCTIVE) - Creates c
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