TEST 1 REVIEW
1.0 The nature of Geology
- Geology Definition: Factors such as climate and the availability of water, that are critical
1.1 What controls the distribution of natural resources?
- Where the rocks creating these natural resources deposit themselves, or where
- AGE OF ROCKS AND HOW THEY FORMED
1.3 What is inside Earth?
- Oceanic: Average composition that is the same as basalt (dark lava)(4 mi)
- Continental: Average composition similar to granite. Thin, light-gray layer (20-25
- Mantle: Composed of green mineral olivine
- Core: Outer core is molten while the inner core is solid
- Why do some regions have higher elevations?
- Thickness of crust: Regions that have high elevation generally have thick crust
- Isostasy: Relationship between crustal thickness and elevation
- The thicker the block, the higher the block
- Control elevation of Earth’s surface
1.6 What can happen to a rock?
- Rock Cycle: Transport-Burial-Uplift
Chapter 2: 2.1 What can we observe in landscapes?
- Color: Oxidation
- Erosion: Talus
- Layering: Law of Superposition
- Shapes of Rock
- Fracturing and cracks
2.2 How do we determine the sequence of past geologic events?
- Relative age of rock layers (youngest to oldest, top to bottom)
- Shape and sharpness of rocks and pebbles
- Cross cutting relations: Faults (EX: YELLOWSTONE)
- Layers form horizontally
-Plates: Large, continent sized slabs that break up the lithosphere
- History of Plate Tectonics
- Alfred Wegener’s Theory of continental drift: Pangaea
- Evidence: Trans Atlantic Connection(Coal deposits and mountain ranges
matching up), Rock ages/geologic history, and fossils
- 1960s Theory of Plate Tectonics
- Evidence: Sea Floor Spreading (magma rises at the ridge, cools,
creates new crust and pushes floor apart); Paleomagnetism (Rock ages
mirror one another from opposite countries/continents); Convection
(Movement of mass due to changes in its density caused by gain or loss
of heat); Plate boundaries
3.4 How do plates move relative to one another? 1. Divergent: Two plates move apart relative to one another. In most cases, magma fills
the space between the plates.
2. Convergent: Two plates move toward one another. A typical result is that one plate
slides under the other
3. Transform: Two plates move horizontally past one another.
3.5 What happens at a divergent boundary? (CONSTRUCTIVE)
- Creates c