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GEOSC 020 TEST 3 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 8: Deformation and metamorphism 8.1 C How do rocks respond to force and stress? • Displacement: Movement • Rotation: Volume of rock is rotated in response to stress - Example: Hogback mountain • Strain: Change size and shape of rock What processes affect rocks at different depths? • Temperature: Increase with depth • Pressure: Increase with depth • Rocks break at shallow depth and flow (ductile) in deep conditions • Shallow, low temperature minerals are stable • Deep, higher temperature and pressure-minerals can recrystallize or grow new minerals SHALLOW – FRACTURE DEEPER – FLOW 8.2 A 3 kinds of differential stress and resulting structures • Compression (Convergent) o Fracture and faulting-shallow o Flow and folds-deep • Tension (Divergent) o Fracture-shallow o Stretch-deep • Shear (Transform) o Fault-shallow o Shear zone-deep – ductile 8.3 A Type of fractures • Joint: A place where the rock has pulled apart by a small amount • Fault: When rocks slip past one another (up/down, side-side, angles) 8.4 C 3 main types of faults • Dip-slip (VERTICAL MOVEMENT) – diagonal o Normal: Hanging wall drops. DIVERGENT o Reverse: Hanging wall moves up. CONVERGENT o Thrust: Hanging wall moves up and over • Strike-slip: Horizontal movement • Oblique-slip: Horizontal and vertical movement 8.5 What are folds and how are they shaped? • Anticline: Rock layers warp up in shape of an A • Syncline: Rock layers fold down in the shape of U 8.6 A What are some metamorphic structures? • Cleavage: Perpendicular to fold o Plunging o Upright o Asymmetric o Overturned 8.9 B What activity occurs along ocean-continent convergent boundaries? • Burial: Oceanic plate subducts beneath a continental plate, forming magma that invades the overriding continental plate. Younger rock or features • can contain pieces of older rock • can cross-cut an older rock or feature 9.4 B How are ages assigned to rocks and events? • Common radioactive decay series and what they are used to date o Cenozoic and Mesozoic rocks: K o Old granites and metamorphic rocks: Rb o Old rocks and magma sources: Th and U
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