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Pennsylvania State University

GEOSC 020 222 EXAM STUDY GUIDE Note: The exam questions combine knowledge from the textbook and lecture. The relevant section of the textbook is noted in brackets. I have provided example questions. Chapter 1: The Nature of Geology Interior layers of the Earth (1.3) - Crust: Oceanic and Continental - Mantle - Core: Outer core is molten while the inner core is solid Isostasy (1.3) - The relationship between crustal thickness and elevation – the thicker the block, the higher the block. Rock cycle (1.6) According to the rock cycle, sediment that is being transported by a river could become a metamorphic rock after: uplift and weathering melting and solidification deposition and burial solidification and uplift Chapter 3: Plate Tectonics Types of plate boundaries (3.4-3.7) 1. Divergent: Two plates move apart relative to one another. In most cases, magma fills the space between the plates. 2. Convergent: Two plates move toward one another. A typical result is that one plate slides under the other 3. Transform: Two plates move horizontally past one another Where plate boundaries are located around the Earth e.g. convergent, subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean (3.4) Where is the oldest and youngest crust relative to a mid-ocean ridge (3.5) - Youngest crust comes up through the middle while the oldest crust gets pushed away Landforms associated with plate boundaries (3.4-3.7) 1. Divergent: Two plates move apart relative to one another. In most cases, magma fills the space between the plates. 2. CONSTRUCTIVE 3. Creates crust at mid-ocean ridge – forms volcanoes and continental rift valley 2. Convergent: Two plates move toward one another.Atypical result is that one plate slides under the other 4. Ocean-to-Continent: DESTRUCTIVE - Rock is destroyed via subduction - EX:Andes Mountains and Cascade Range ii.) Ocean-to-Ocean: DESTRUCTIVE - Rock is destroyed - Subduction trenches in deep oceans - EX: IslandArcs –Aleutian Islands iii.) Continent-to-Continent: CONSERVATIVE - Rock is neither created nor destroyed - No subduction - EX: Folded mountains – Himalayas 1. Transform: CONSERVATIVE - No subduction, no spreading - Transform Faults - Examples: Mantle plumes and hotspots, accreted terrains (smash together) The plate boundary on the this figure is located between: Aand B B and C C and D D and E there is not enough information to tell Chapter 4: Earth Materials Relationship of minerals to rocks (4.1) 2. Mineral must fulfill the following: Natural, Inorganic, Solid, Ordered Internal Structure and Specific Chemical Composition Types of chemical bonding (4.12) 1. Covalent Bond: Sharing 2. Ionic Bond: Loaning 3. Metallic Bond: Free flow 4. Intermolecular Force: Stick together Most important class of rock forming minerals (4.6) 3. Silicates 4. Carbonates 5. Oxides 6. Halides 7. Sulfates 8. Sulfides 9. Native minerals Chapter 5: Igneous Environments Magma mixing, assimilation, crystallization (5.6) 1. Crystallization: a. Felsic crystals float to TOP b. Mafic crystals sink to BOTTOM 2. Mixing: When two different magmas come in contact with one another a. Creates INTERMEDIATE ROCK 3. Assimilation: when a magma chamber is hotter than the melting temp of the felsic rock separating two chambers and melts through the wall and melts the rock into the next chamber – host rock is dislodged, melts and is incorporated into magma body. Melting and divergent boundaries (5.9) 1. Pillow Basalts: Upper part of moceanic crust consists of basaltic flows a. When magma is introduced to water 2. Sheeted dikes: Thin, vertical intrusions of finely crystalline basalt through which magma passes 3. Gabbro (magma chamber): Form deep in oceanic crust (mid ocean ridge) Melting and convergent boundaries (5.10) 10. Ocean-ocean boundaries: Pressure and temperature increase and the subducted plate descends 11. Continent-continent boundaries: Because of increase in temperature and pressure the minerals convert into new ones. Magma is then created and may crystallize at depth of erupt at surface. Magmatism and hotspots (5.11) (NOT ASSOCIATED WITH PLATE BOUNDARIES) 1. Hot spots and mantle plumes: 2. Hot spots in oceans: 3. Hot spots in continents: How magma cools (5.8) A. Slow cooling: Coarse-grained granite B. Medium cooling: Medium-grained granitic rock C. Very fast cooling: Very fined-grained rhyolite D. Slow then fast cooling: Porphyritic Intrusive Rock Plutons, dikes and sills (5.12, 5.13) a. Irregular Plutons: LARGE SCALE i. Intrusive, high resistance to erosion, usually steep b. Sheetlike Plutons: LARGE SCALE i. Magma chambers that have spread out c. Batholiths: LARGE SCALE i. Multiple plutons; cover huge regions over long periods of time ii.Ex: Sierra Nevada’s d. Dike: SMALL SCALE i. Magma intrudes perpendicular to sediment beds (Cuts across any layers present in the host rock) e. Sill: SMALL SCALE i. Come up through cracks, along or parallel to sediment plains (Parallel to layers in host rock) Intrusive versus extrusive igneous rocks (5.12, 5.13) What generally happens to subduction-derived magma at an ocean-ocean convergent boundary? most magma reaches the surface and forms volcanoes the magma solidifies in sheeted dikes before reaching the surface the magma solidifies as sills before reaching the surface the magma sinks further into the oceanic crust Chapter 6: Volcano
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