1. Make sure that you know what is meant by the following terms: Catadromous, anadromous,
lateral line organ.
Catadromous species (eels) migrate down rivers into the sea to spawn while anadromous
species (salmon) migrate up rivers from the sea to spawn. A lateral line organ is a visible
line along the side of a fish consisting of a series of sense organs that detect pressure and
2. What factors make a sustainable, commercial fishery; that is, what types of fishes can be
harvested in a sustainable fashion?
The fish that can be harvested in a sustainable fashion include: Anchoveta, Alaska Pollock,
skipjack tuna, Atlantic herring, blue herring, chub mackerel, Chilean jack mackerel,
Japanese anchovy, largehead hairtail and yellowfin tuna.
3. What is aquaculture and what are some of the pros and cons of aquaculture as it is practiced
Aquaculture is the rearing of aquatic animals or the cultivation of aquatic plants for food.
One of the pros of aquaculture is that it allows for the production of more marine life and
thus the consumption of more seafood, which aids the world economy. The cons of
aquaculture are that the wild fish need to be fed farmed fish and these farmed fish are prone
to injury, parasitism and disease. Not only this but they cause high pollutant concentrations
and are typically pumped with drugs such as antibiotics which can cause contamination.
Aquaculture also is to blame for overfishing, by catch and habitat destruction.
4. How do Coral live? Do the shells eat? What are coral polyps and what do they eat? What are
the key factors in the ‘energy flow’ of a Coral reef?
Corals get their food from sunlight to the microscopic animals to trace elements in the
ocean. Coral polyps are the living part of coral, the animal, that live within the cavities of the
outer skeleton. Coral polyps hosts symbionts that, in addition to excreting waste products of
use to the polyps, provide the brilliant colors.The key factors in the energy flow of a coral
reef system include primary producers and primary consumers, i.e. the trophic pyramid.
5. Where do coral polyps fit into the trophic pyramid for coral reef ecosystems?
Coral polyps fall under the category of primary consumers on the trophic pyramid while
zoxanthellae, the main organism that dwells inside of coral polyps, fall under the primary
7. Why are coral and coral reefs in decline worldwide? Why does global warming have a
negative impact on coral?
Coral reefs are in decline worldwide largely because of urbanization and the additional
problems that it brings such as sediment influx, excess nutrients (effluents from sewage
treatment, septic systems) and overfishing. Global warming has a negative impact on coral
because it causes increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is harmful to
coral reefs. Global warming also increases the water temperature and causes the corals
stress by expelling the algae that live within, leading to bleaching.
8. Why do coral need to live in the photic zone? How can excess nutrients in water harm coral?
Corals need to live in the photic zone because it is plentiful in nutrients that are necessary in order for their symbionts to photosynthesize, but, if there are too many nutrients, blue-green
algae can become too plentiful and smother a coral colony. Corals do best in nutrient-poor
water also because they are easily out-competed by benthonic filter feeders in nutrient-rich
water where phytoplankton are abundant.
9. Make sure that you understand the concepts we covered about Chesapeake Bay in lectures
18 and 19.
10. What is hypoxia? What is eutrophication?
Hypoxia is an oxygen deficiency and eutrophication is excessive richness of nutrients in a
lake or other body of water, frequently due to runoff from the land, which causes a dense
growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen