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Exam 1

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HIST 121
Linda Short

EXAM #1 Holocaust/Shoah only refers to Jews 1933 – Hitler was appointed chancellor (never elected) 1935 – Nuremberg Laws – striped Jews of citizenship 1938 – Kristalnacht pogrom – mobviolence – not government initiated – Jewish temples are burned – Jewish men are arrested 1939 – WWII starts 1941 – Barbarossa – Germany invades Soviet Union, begins mass killing of Jews – men, women, and children 1942 – Death camps (at the end of killing), most Jews are already killed Abraham – all 3 religions (Jewish, Islam, Christianity) all trace their stories around this character  Monotheism – the belief of one supreme being  They don’t have a belief system different than anyone else, don’t believe in other gods/goddesses  Form Judaism – how you relate to each other, obligations to each other, the land, supreme being  Jews have a period of about 700 years where they rule themselves Holocaust holocaust (Greek word) – special offering – burned entirely until the only thing left is ash, dedicated to God, offered by the priest Shoah – Hebrew word, makes connection with Jews, means catastrophe  Romans destroy second temple and it was never rebuilt  Diasphora – spreading/scattering of Jews all over the world (not voluntary)  Romans changed the name to Palestine Origins  Call of Abraham  Emergence of monotheism  Ethical system  Development as a group, a community, a nation  The word “Jew” – It was a political term because it was the land, those considered citizens who moved away had ancestors Practicing Identity: sacred texts and Holy days  Tanakh: Torah, prophets, writings  Shabbat – Weekly holy day, days begin at sundown  Rosh Hashana – Jewish New Year  Yom Kippur – High Holy Days  Hannukah – oil lasted 8 days when it should’ve lasted for 1  Pesach/Passover – Angel of death would pass over  New observances (Yom Hashoah) – day of Holocaust remembrance (beginning of April or end of May) Israel connects 3 continents: Africa  Asia  Europe Brief History: Jews in Europe From Iberian Peninsula to Ottoman Empire and Modern Times Iberian Peninsula  8 to 15 c.h  Of Islam and Muslim rule  Convivencia (co-existence)  From Israel to Iberia  Jews are dhimmi (protected subjects) - Lives and property protected - Worship as wish - Govern own communities - How officially are protected from violence, have their property taken away  can now be Jews  In Iberia the Jewish population begins to increase  Jews create a different kind of expression because the temples were burned Jewish cultural Response  Spread of Rabbinic Judaism  Flourishing new thought in science, philosophy, art, medicine, astronomy, mathematics  Arabic, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Spanish (ladino), spoken, written, translations  Iberia replaces the land of Israel and Babylonia as the center of the Jewish world  Jews were willing to interact with the non Jews and vise versa  Jews wrote new language/writing Economic Position  Contact and trade with other Jews  Jews owned land  Worked in virtually all kinds of jobs that people had then: wealthy Jewish commercial class existed alongside ordinary Jewish craftspeople, farmers, traders, etc.  Jews acted as diplomats, representatives, and negotiators between Muslims and Christians  1492 all Jews were expelled in Spain by Christians and those in Portugal were forced to convert Western and Central Europe  15 – early 20 c.  “Ashkenazic” Jews  Jews invited by rulers who need Jewish competencies that non-Jews did not have  Occupations limited; cannot own land  Jews subject to rulers’ whims; rejected by neighbors  Jews thus focus inward on own interest  Those who knew how to read and write were the royalty, clergy, Jewish men Jewish Response  Focus on Judaism rather than science  Study and expand Talmud, halachah; new commentaries which are foundation yet today  Haskalah (Mendelssohn) – he said to be like the Germans (he was a German Jew)  let there be light  Jewish enlightenment  Zionism (Herzl)  Move eastward: Poland, Lithuania  Zionism – Jews need their own nation again Anti-Jewish Actions  Crusades  Blood libel  Restructive Ottoman Empire  16 c. – early 20 th  16 c. haven to the Jews of Spain  16 c. Poland invites Jews with skills  1648-1649 – Jews of Poland and Ukraine experience massacres and severe violence Economic Position  Manage estates of the nobility Jewish Response  Kabbalah  Hasidism (Baal Shem Tov)  Tikuh Olam (notion of social justice) Modern Times  Diminished residential and geographic segregation from non-Jews  Increased freedom of movement  Participation in democratic governments  New forms of Judaism, Hebrew revival, secular scholarship  New occupations, vernacular languages  Zionism Who are Jews? German and Polish Jewry Western Europe: German Jewry  11 c.: Jewish settlements in all major cities  16 c.: Hamburg welcomes Portuguese Marranos; becomes important Sephardic center  Jews continuously for more than 1500 years by time German Empire established in 1870  Morranos – Jews who converted but privately continued to be Jewish (they were forced to convert). Also called crypto-Jews, and conversos (those who have converted)  Sephardic Jews speak ladino, Yiddish-Jews speak in Germany (hybrid of German and Hebrew)  Jews are welcome to fill an economic nish 18 and 19 c.: World developments  Changing intellectual climate: enlightenment philosophies: influence of Moses, Mendelssohn: equality, liberty, fraternity  Changing political climate: New conceptions of nationhood and citizenship; Jews variously called “nation”, “colony”, “class”, “Israelites”  Changing economic climate: modernization, the middle class, though most Jews poor  Moses Mendelssohn – German Jew – he said don’t only study Torah, study everything else  Haskalah – Jewish enlightenment – to help us be accepted by Germans, we need to be more like the Germans 19 c.: German developments  1812: German land occupied by Napoleon offers limited emancipation of Jews, which is rescinded when Napoleon falls  1815: for
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