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Holocaust exam #2 study guide.docx

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HIST 121
Linda Short

EXAM #2 STUDY GUIDE FIRST STEPS: ISOLATION AND PERSECUTION. GERMANY 1933-1938 January 30, 1933  “I will employ my strength for the welfare of the German people, protect the Constitution and laws of the German people, conscientiously discharge the duties imposed on me, and conduct my affairs of office impartially and with justice to everyone.” – the oath taken by Adolf Hitler Reaction to Hindenburg’s Choice  Former General Erich Ludendorff: once supported Hitler, participated in the failed putsch in 1923 Hitler’s Response  Burning of Reichstag, Feb. 1933  “You are now witnessing the beginning of a great epoch in German history…this fire is the beginning,” Hitler told a news reporter at the scene.  Uses the fire and street disturbances to get ‘emergency decree’ enacted Emergency Decree  No freedom of speech, no privacy, no freedom of the press…etc.  No end date, doesn’t say this is good until Consolidating Power  Goering immediately replaces hundreds of police officials loyal to the republic with Nazi officials loyal to Hitler  He also orders the police not to interfere with the SA and SS under any circumstances.  For those deemed hostile to the State, esp. communists, ‘show no mercy’ Controlling State Governments  Nazis begin a systematic takeover of the state governments throughout Germany  Armed SA and SS into local government offices using the ‘emergency decree’ as a pretext to throw out legitimate office holders and replace them with Nazi Reich commissioners Controlling Oppositions  The Nazis suppress all political activity, meetings and publications of non- Nazi parties  The very act of campaigning against the Nazis was in effect made illegal  Political enemies arrested by the thousands  Put in hastily constructed holding pens Controlling Courts  Establishment of special courts to try political offenders  Courts conducted in the military style of a court-martial without a jury and usually with no counsel for the defense  By ‘executive order’ signed by Hitler Controlling Media  Joseph Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda  Controls the state-run radio  Broadcasts Nazi ideology and Hitler’s speeches all across the nation  Placards throughout Germany Enabling Act  March 23  Officially called the “Law for Removing the Distress of the People and the Reich”  Reichstag meets in Berlin  SA in attendance: “the bill – or fire and murder”  Democracy essentially ends Well’s Choice  Otto Wells, leader of the Social Democrats stood up alone to speak against bill  He was hunted down but was able to escape Reassuring the World  Potsdam, the burial place of Frederick the Great: an elaborate ceremony designed to ease public concern over Hitler and his new regime  World leaders invited  Organized by Goebbels, propaganda minister  Hitler doesn’t wear SA uniform, military uniform, Nazi uniform, comes in street clothes  Hitler bows, symbolism he will not be violent Implementing ‘Gleichschaltung’  ‘Coordination’  ‘Bringing into line’  All aspects of life under the Nazis and the absolute leadership of Adolf Hitler  The State, not the individual, is supreme  Constant Nazi rallies, parades, marches  1934: SA: Night of the Long Knives March-May 1933  Dachau opens  Nazi party militias; anti-Jewish violence  Enabling act  One day boycott Jewish businesses  Gestapo established  Laws re: civil service, schools  Book burnings  27,000 persons in “protective custody” by July 1933 Cycle of Laws (and Events)  1933: ER decree; Enabling Act; April laws  (1934: President Hindenburg dies)  1935: Nuremberg Laws  (1936: Summer Olympics in Berlin)  (1936: Larger camps open in Germany)  1938: Aryanization and others  Nov. 9-10, 1938:L Kristallnacht Pogrom Jewish Responses  Experience and response varies  Reaffirm Jewish identity; reject assimilation  Learn of Jewish heritage  Support Zionism  “Eruption of madness can’t last”  “Do your duty here [in Germany]”  Boycott of German goods German Responses  The German Public and the Persecution of the Jews 1933-1945: no one participated; no one knew (1996)  Today in Germany, teach ‘civil courage’ Es Brent  Composed 1938 by Mordecai Gebirtig  In Yiddish  Gebirtig wrote most of his songs in the Cracow Ghetto  Shot by Nazis June, 1942 HITLER ON MARCH: 1935 TO 1941  September 1 1939: Germany invades Poland st  September 1 1940: Germany invades (I don’t know)  Rations across the board but less for Jews  FOOD: moldy bread, started to add food to the food list that Jews could not buy, signs in store windows, “food not sold to Jews”, Gestapo would go check their houses, they would take their food (unannounced)  HOUSING: the Jews get evacuated from their homes, a law was passed that landlords were able to evict Jews, families were able to live in one room or apartment with multiple families, you don’t know when it is going to happen (with limited time, no time notice), belongings left behind were buried, broken, taken  The star of David (requirement) was the next step to persecution, they had to wear it so they could see who is a Jew  FINANCE: have to apply for your own money, got all money you had taken away Hitler begins his march…  Breaks Versailles Treaty  Marches into Rhineland (area between west Germany and France): March 1936  he wants to see what reaction he’ll get, France appeals to Britain, France remains passive  Helps support unrest in Poland, Romania Hitler’s Aims  Unite German-speaking people (wherever they lived): protect ‘Germanic’ from ‘non-Germanic’; “ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Fuhrer”  Wants Lebensraum (living space): Germany needs more land  Wants domination over Europe: if they stood as one, the Germans would become “the most glorious among peoples”  Wants Jews out of ‘his lands’ Unrest in Poland  Poland for the (non-Jewish) Poles  Jozef Pilsudski, leader of the new republic of Poland, keeps anti-Semitic violence checked until his death in 1935  New leadership declares Jews a “surplus” population  By 1937, undeclared war against its Jews Hitler marches on…  March 1938: Anschluss (union) with Austria  March 1939: occupies Czechoslovakia  September 1, 1939: invades Poland  World War II begins European Expansion  Nov. 1939: Finland invaded by Sov. Union  Spring 1940: Germans conquer Denmark, Norway, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands  Fall 1940: Italy, Hungary, Romanic, and Slovakia join Germany in the Axis  March 1941: Bulgaria joins Axis; Germany invades Greece  June 1941: Germany attacks Soviet Union Actions of other nations  Continuum of responses from full resistance to acquiescence  Example of great resistance is…  Countries which asked to have their Jewish populations deported… What influenced nations to respond in one way or another?  Geographical location  Whether or not a German government  Protest of local population  Collaboration/antipathy of locals toward Jews  Response of clergy/churches More possible influences  Existence of underground movements  Decisions by local police authorities  Role models of high ranking officials  Date, and likelihood of German victory  Evaluating conditions in each country remains a research opportunity WHY DIDN’T JEWS LEAVE?: GETTING OUT OF EUROPE Why didn’t Jews leave?  Reasons why one would not want to leave  Some did leave  Who could leave?  What is required?  First wave after 1933 anti-Jewish laws: intellectuals Emigration Problems  Travel before World War I  How to get out? Difficulty obtaining necessary paperwork, other obstacles (not free travel anymore)  Where to go?  All documentation was in a 4 month window and if you don’t get all documents within 4 months then you had to start all over again, it was expensive, and was not centrally located  What could you bring with you? Where to go?  By 1935, countries keep immigration to a minimum  Shanghai: an exception  Evian Conference: July 1938  May 1939: the S.S. St. Louis Story  Couldn’t come to the US without an affidavit from someone in the US that swore they would financially support you Evian Conference  July 1938  Called by US President Franklin Roosevelt  “International conference on the refugee crisis”  Held in Evian, France  32 nations participate  Leave with “implied permission” to keep borders closed; no help for Jews S.S St. Louis  May 1939  C. 900 German Jews leave for Cuba  U.S refuses entry  Forced to return to Europe  Great Britain, France, Belgium, Netherlands accept refugees  In the spring of 1940, those in France, Belgium, and Netherlands are occupied by Germany Those who did Leave  By March 1938, 120,000 out of 500,000 German Jewry gone  After Kristallnacht, another 120,000 leave  In total, approx.. 800,000 persons, less than 1 in 7 of Jews murdered, able to escape from Nazi- occupied Europe Kindertransports  “Kinder” = children, in German  Saves 10,000 children  Early 1939  Special rescue trains take children west to Netherlands and Great Britain  Later, trains would take their parents east to camps DEVELOPING THE METHODS Eugenics Movement  Eugenics: movement devoted to improving the human species through the control of hereditary factors in mating  International, not just Germany  Mendel’s (d. 1884) research with plants  “Gene first used in 1909  Biological solutions to social problems  Apply Darwin’s natural selection to society Policy Implications  Nazi ideology promotes purification and health of the Aryan “race” in order to develop a pure and strong race  Add the ideas of eugenics movement  What logical policy initiatives might flow from this ideology? Targeted groups  Unfit, weak, inferior, impure  What does it cost to ‘maintain’ these individuals? (financially) Options  Segregate and isolate  Legislate against  “Eliminate” (withhold medicine, withhold food, kill) ‘Voluntary’ Sterilization  Before 1933  Sterilize people considered ‘abnormal’  In Germany, but also other countries  U.S. leads: prison inmates, institutionalized mentally ill, welfare recipients  In the case of a female – cannot have children, for a male – cannot contribute to making a new child  Initial step  not killing but not making more children Forced Sterilization  No children from individuals deemed ‘unfit’, ‘weak’, ‘impure’  Law for Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (1933)  Men and women who “suffered” from any of nine conditions assumed to be hereditary, including depression, blindness, deafness, physical deformity, and alcoholism  1933-1939 Popular Reaction  Roman Catholic Church usually opposes  Most German Protestant churches accept  Films such as Das Erbe (“inheritance”) stigmatize the mentally ill, handicapped and highlight the cost of care  Schools mathematics books use related word problems  Cooperation of medical professionals Other Laws  Blood Protection Law (Nuremberg Laws) made it a crime for a Jew and a non-Jewish German to marry  The Marital Health Law (1935) banned marriage between the ‘hereditarily healthy’ and the ‘genetically unfit’ “Euthanasia”: T4  Meaning today: ‘relieve suffering of chronically or terminally ill’  In Germany then: kill “undesirables” to “cleanse” the “Aryan” race of persons considered genetically defective, decrease the financial burden to society, and for good of the Fatherland T4 Program  1939-1945: using WWII as a cover  In 1935 Hitler says that “in the event of war, [he] would take up the question of euthanasia and enforce it” because “such a problem would be more easily solved” during wartime.  Infants and children who are in institutionalized settings 5,000 who are killed  Named after the address of the program office Tiergartenstrasse 5, Berlin  Never proposed a formal “Euthanasia” law  The killing of patients in mental asylums and other institutions was to be carried out in secret  Fall of 1939, 6 gassing installations were established in Germany and Austria  1940, institution murdered their 10,000 patient T4 Methods used later  Moving target populations  Gas chambers  Crematoria  Deceptive practices (cursory exam, undress, shower room, secrecy) ‘End’ of T4  1941, due to public outcry  Continues in decentralized fashion until 1945  Continues with lethal injection  Many personnel as well as dismantled gas chambers move to Poland for use in developing killing centers/camps there Einsatzgruppen  ‘Mobile killing units’, under SS  Units shoot mental patients in the German-occupied territories, Sept.-Nov. 1939  Use specially equipped gas vans, Dec. 1939-Jan. 1940 (excerpt, “Shoah”, on Saurer vans) INTRODUCTION TO THE CAMPS The Process  How to move large numbers of people?  How to do so control?  What to do with these individuals when you have them ‘relocated’?  Who is involved? Overview  4 million Jews forced from homes  Taken by train to camps  Murdered by being: worked to death, starved to death, beaten to death, shot, gassed Role of the Railroads  4 million Jews moved by trains, usually cattle cars  Up to 1,000 on each train  Deprived of food or water  Many die during journey  Long journeys: from Athens, Greece to Poland; from Rome to Poland; from south France north to Belgium, east to Poland Types  Although, ‘concentration camp’ is used generically, there were different types of camps:  Labor camps  Transit camps  Concentration camps  Exterm
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