Exam 1 Review:
1. List six reasons plants are important and explain why.
Purify the air we breathe
2. What are some examples of plantderived pharmaceuticals?
Aloe (from aloe plant)
Aspirin (from willow trees)
3. What criteria must be met for germination to occur?
Seed has to be viable
Proper environmental conditions
Primary dormancy must be overcome
4. What are the four stages of seed germination?
Water taken up
Formation of enzyme systems
Breakdown of storage products for energy
5. What are two positive and two negative effects of touch stimulation?
+More resistant to stress
6. What are four major reasons weeds cause problems among crop plants?
Compete for water
Compete for nutrients
Compete for light
Bring diseases and insects
Seed ripened ovule, which consists of an embryo, stored food reserves, and a seed coat
Viable embryo is alive and capable of germination
Photosynthesis series of chemical reactions in which carbon dioxide and water are
converted in the presence of light to carbohydrate and oxygen
Phototropism movement of plant in directional fluxes in light
Thigmotropism movement in response to touch
Dormancy temporary suspension of physical growth Rest 2 category of dormancy, internal conditions
Quiescence 1 category of dormancy, plant is under external or environmental
Gravitropism movement in response to gravity
Negative gravitropism bending up
Positive gravitropism bending downwards
Senescence general failure of many reactions that precedes cell death, and is
characterized by chlorophyll degradation
Abcission separation of a plant part, from parent part
Weed a plant growing where it is not desired
Biotechnology manipulation of a living organism or substances obtained from living
organisms for the benefit of humanity
1. The number one requirement for a seed to germinate is proper environmental
False: The seed has to be viable
2. One of the positive effects of touching plants is that they become shorter and
more resistant to other forms of stress
3. Rest is a form of dormancy regulated by internal factors
4. Plants have been scientifically show to reduce stress in humans
5. Asexual propagation is the most common form of reproduction in nature
Fill in the blanks
1. Photosynthesis is a series of chemical reactions in which carbon dioxide and
water are converted in the presence of light into carbohydrate and oxygen
2. Plants have the ability to perceive environmental cues, such as day length and
temperature, which tell them when to become dormant and when to come out of
3. The first visible sign of seed germination is emergence of the radicle
4. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air and add oxygen, maintaining a
balance of gasses in our atmosphere 5. Senescence is a general failure of many synthetic reactions that precedes cell
death and is visually characterized by chlorophyll degradation as well as many
(See seed diagram)
Reasons to study plants:
o Manipulate growth
o Increase productivity of plants
Brushing: light touch at top of plant to prevent growth
Two categories of dormancy:
o Quiescence (external)
o Rest (internal)
Typness: when the apple is elongated and has pronounced calax lobes
1. What is the definition of agriculture?
The production of plants and animals to meet basic human needs
2. List five theories on the origin of agriculture and provide a brief explanation
As a divine gift
Result of stress
Extension of gathering
Result of no specific model
3. What was the major limiting factor in primitive societies?
The availability and dependability of a food supply
4. What was the immediate reward of agriculture, which provided an available
and dependable supply of food?
A surplus of food allowed more people to specialize in other things that lead to
5. What are the top four major food crops produced today?
Wheat, rice, corn, potato, barley
6. Provide examples of food crops domesticated in each of the 13 major regions
of the world?
(Only first four regions needed for first exam)
North America grape
Meso America corn
Highland South America peanut
Lowland South America pineapple
7. What was the time frame during which the domestication of plants
The end of the ice age Hatch Act: used to provide annual support for agricultural experiment facilities
Agricultural Adjustment Act: to correct the problem of over production
Agricultural Marketing Act: post and pre production studies
1. The time frame during which domestication of plants occurred was toward the
end of the ice age
2. The current view hold that plants were domesticated at different times over a wide
False: At the same time over a wide range
3. One of the major accomplishments of the Egyptian civilization was the
development of irrigation systems through the use of hydraulic engineering.
4. The Greek civilization was only involved in practical agriculture in a minor way.
5. Although the Greeks were great scientific thinkers, they did not show much
interest in the dayto day problems of agriculture.
6. The Romans produced very little new discoveries, but they did make great
improvements on existing technology
1. There are 13 major regions of the world where major food crops were
2. Agriculture is the production of plants and animals to meet basic human needs
3. The Renaissance was the period of time which immediately followed the Middle
Stephen Hales (16771761) Published “Vegetable Stacks”, which was the first
significant publication in plant physiology
Charles Darwin (18091882) first to describe plant movement in response to light and
Marcello Malpighi (16281694) & Nehemiah Grew (16411712) initiation of basic
studies in plant anatomy and morphology
Rudolph Camerarius (16651721) demonstrated sexuality in plants, thereby providing
the roots of genetics
Linneaus (17071778) classification of plants aka binomial nomenclature
Gregor Mendel (18221884) founder of modern genetics Joseph Priestly (17731804) showed that plants purified air
Robert Hooke (16351703) living things were made of cells leading to the future of
1. Why has horticulture become a huge industry?
People like many types of plants at specific times throughout the year
2. In the College of Agriculture there are typically 12 departments; break down
these departments into four groups.
3. What are three important areas of plant science found in agriculture?
Horticulture (plants for food, comfort, and beauty)
Agronomy (grain crops)
Forestry (trees for timber)
4. Divide horticulture into three major areas.
Ornamental (growing/using plants for beauty)
Promology (fruits and nuts)
5. What are four basic characteristics of horticulture?
High water content (higher than 90%)
Large number and variety of crops
6. Ornamental horticulture can be broken down into what three groups?
Floriculture (production/transportation and use of flower & foliage plants
Landscaping plants making outdoor environments more appealing
Interiorscaping using plants indoors
Agriculture production of plants and animals to meet basic human needs
Horticulture the culture of plants for food, comfort, and beauty
1. Horticulture involves the cultivation of a large number of and variety of crops
2. The Latin term hortus is short for horticulture
False: it means garden
3. The Latin term colere means “to culture” True
4. Horticulture includes a wide variety of important and useful plants, including
strawberries, tomatoes, and grain crops.
False: agronomy is the use of grain crops
5. Horticulture crops are intensely cultivated
1. Floriculture is the production, transportation and use of flower and foliage plants.
2. Olericulture is the growing, harve