Exam 2 Review:
1. What are five reasons for classifying plants?
To catalog them
Overcome language barriers
Provide info about their origins
Better understand the relationship between plants
2. What were two categories used for the classification of plants in early
3. What are eight ways scientists group plants for classification?
1. Kind of stem
2. Size of the plant
3. Stem growth form
4. Kind of fruit
5. Life cycle
6. Foliage retention
7. Temperature tolerances
8. Number of cotyledons and venation
4. Why were Latin polynomials and common names found to be inadequate?
Latin polynomials were too long and complicated. Common names caused
problems resulting from language differences and plant differences throughout the
5. What group is responsible for the naming of plants today?
Binomial nomenclature system
6. Give an example of the binomial nomenclature system.
Brassica oleracea L. Union
7. List the nine categories used for botanical classification and provide an
explanation for each
8. Why is cultivar identification important, and what are some ways commonly
used to distinguish between cultivars? They are important b/c if a grower puts a lot of time/effort into establishing a
cultivar the grower must establish ownership to prevent patent infringements
Distinguished by differences in flower, fruit, and vegetative parts
9. Name and explain the three major phases of a plant’s life cycle
1. Juvenile: growth phase and doesn’t have ability to flower
2. Reproductive: growth stops and plant can flower
3. Senescence: internal breakdowns which cause death
10. What is the main function of a leaf?
11. What are the two major photosynthetic enzymes found in plants?
12. List the nine major parts of a simple leaf
5. Leaf margin
6. Leaf apex
7. Leaf base
8. Leaf covering
13. Distinguish between a leaf and a leaflet
Leaf: axillary bud is located at the base of the entire leaf
Leaflets: do not have axillary buds
14. Give two examples of a modified leaf
15. What are the four major functions of a stem
4. Storage organ
16. List the eight parts of the stem
1. Terminal bud
2. Bud scale
3. Terminal budscale scar
4. Axillary or lateral bud
7. Leaf scar 8. Lenticel
17. What are four examples of a modified stem
2. Rhizomes 3. Stem tuber
18. What are the three major functions of the root?
1. Absorb water and nutrients
2. For support and to anchor plant
3. Store carbohydrates
19. What are two types of root systems?
1. Taproot system 1 primary root that grows down from the stem
2. Fibrous root system large number of small primary and secondary roots
20. Provide an example of a modified root
21. What are the three major functions of flowers?
1. Attract pollinators
2. Used to identify plants
3. Used for aesthetics
22. Provide four major parts of a flower and additional parts when needed
23. What are two types of fruit?
1. Fleshy fruit (tomato)
2. Dry fruit (sunflower)
24. Where is food stored in monocot and dicot seeds?
25. Three factors required for seed germination. After being met, what are the
three phases of seed germination?
1. Viable seed
2. Proper environmental conditions
3. Primary dormancy overcome
1. Imbibition of water
2. Formation of enzyme systems
3. Breakdown of storage products
1. Removing dead or dying flowers from annuals so the plant will continue to bloom
for a longer period of time is known as dead heading
2. Vernalization is a cold treatment used to make certain plants flower True
3. Angiosperms usually have naked seeds born in cones
4. Latin polynomial nomenclature is commonly used to classify plants
False: much too complicated
5. Gymnosperms are a class of flowering plants that develop their seeds in fruits
6. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through tiny pores called stomata
7. One of the major photosynthetic enzymes in plants is ribulosediphospatase
False: rubisco & pepcarboxylase
8. Fertilization is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
9. Pollination occurs when the male sex cell fuses with the egg cell to form a new
10. A perfect flower contains both stamens and pistils
11. An imperfect flower lacks either sepals and petals
False: lacks either a stamen or pistil
12. Dicots store their food in a specialized group of tissues called the endosperm
13. Epigeous germination occurs when the epicotyl emerges and cotyledons remain
below the soil surface
14. Hypogeous germination occurs when the epicotyl emerges and cotyledons remain
below the soil surface
15. Monocots store their food in the cotyledons
False: in the endosperms
Most horticulture plants are in the division tracheophyta
The annual rings of a tree are made up of xylem
Major function of the pith is to store food and moisture in the center portion of the
Major function of the xylem is to transport water and nutrients
The major function of the phloem is to move manufactured food and carbohydrates
The other term for a nonwoody plant is herbaceous
Horticulturists are generally interested in the botanical variety, form, biotype, and clone.
When any of these are intentionally cultivated they are referred to as a cultivar
Lnnaeous established a clear and concise method for classifying plants called binomial
Both genetic and environmental conditions determine when plants flower
The cambium is an area where new cells are formed and is the layer between the xylem
1. Why is propagation by seeds the major means of reproduction in
They are easy to use and inexpensive
2. What are the four classes of seed production that must occur prior to
commercial seed distribution?
1. Breeder seed
2. Foundation seed
3. Registered seed
4. Certified seed
3. What are four factors that should be considered for the production of seeds?
2. Harvesting and collecting
3. Cleaning seeds
4. Storing seeds
5. How can you experimentally determine percentage seed germination?
Determine the percentage of seeds that grow
6. What is indirect seeding?
Planting seeds indoors for transplant
7. What are four important factors that should be considered when selecting
a germination media?
1. Proper drainage and aeration
2. Favorable pH
3. Provides essential nutrients
4. Free of insects, weeds, disease
8. What is dampingoff, and what are two ways to control it?
Fungal disease which causes stems to rot at the soil line
1. Proper sanitation
2. Avoid warm/wet medium
3. Use fungicide
9. What are the five major categories of primary seed dormancy?
1. Physical dormancy water cant get through
2. Mechanical dormancy seed can’t break out
3. Chemical dormancy germination inhibitors in seed coat
4. Morphological dormancy embryo is underdeveloped
5. Physiological dormancy inhibitors spread throughout whole seed
10. What is the most important benefit of asexual propagation?
Genetically identical to parent plant 11. 9What are the eight types of asexual propagation
8. Tissue culture
12. What are three factors that determine if cuttings will produce roots?
1. Time of year
2. Stage of growth
3. Type of wood
13. List four types of cuttings
1. Stem cutting
2. Leaf cutting
3. Leafbud cutting
4. Root cutting
14. What are several factors that should be considered to ensure opt