Exam 3 HDFS Notes (Autosaved).docx

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Human Development and Family Studies
HD FS 129
Molly Countermine

Exam 3 HDFS Notes Jeffrey Arnett Emerging Adulthood: a distinct period of development that differs from adolescence and young adulthood Takes place between 18-25 years of and is characterized by independent role exploration and frequent change 1970: Typical 21 year old - Married or about to be married - Caring for a child of planning a pregnancy - Done with education - Settled into a job or role of full-time mother (Went to college to find a husband and usually didn’t finish) Today: Typical 21 year old - Marriage and parenthood --- not for another 5 years (maybe) - Education may last more years - Will experience job change (very frequent) WHY? - Invention of birth control - Sexual revolution of 60’s and 70’s (Woodstock and other hippie related movements) - Increase in years devoted to higher education - Change in women’s roles - Change in how young people view becoming an adult Love: - Adolescents: dating primary recreational/ experimental - Emerging adults: dating a serious search for a partner - Young Adults (30): 75% married with children Work/ education Adolescents: - Service job - Purpose of work to support leisure activities - 95% enrolled in school Emerging Adults (18-25) - Laying groundwork for adult occupation - 60% go on to higher education - 32% complete 4 or more years of college - Trying out unusual work/education possibilities Young Adult: (25-35) - Settled into career - Only 10% involved in higher education Age of instability………. Changing the plan - Changing major in college - Dropping out of college - Dissatisfaction with work - Romantic relationship Moving… - Emerging Adults have the highest rate of residential change of any age group Why do EAS move so much? - Going to college - Wanting to move away from parents - Dropping out of college - Changing roommates - Wanting to live with significant other - Breaking up with significant other - New job - Graduate school Examining worldviews - Enter emerging adulthood with worldviews learned in childhood and adolescence - College students are exposed to greater diversity and, as a result, change worldviews - Emerging adults who do not attend college are as likely as college students to examine existing worldviews and form their own set of beliefs and values “I am very sure that someday I I’ll get to where I want to be in life” - 96% of 18-24 year olds agree with this statement - Most emerging adults are pessimistic about the future of society Reports of drug use and loneliness are higher during emerging adulthood that at any other time in the lifespan What are the top 3 criteria for achieving adulthood? - Accepting responsibility for yourself - Making independent decisions - Being financially independent A few more point… - EA extends identity development - Vastly different from others - Play more active role in own development - Without college, there is less “excitement and personal growth” in EA Intimacy - Open, supportive, and tender relationship without the fear of losing one’s self - Able to put aside self at times because self is secure Isolation - Self- absorption, fear of losing one’s self, unwillingness to compromise Friendships come BEFORE romantic relationships In Adolescence - Female friendships are “face to face” with an emphasis on self-disclosure - Male friendships are “side by side” with emphasis on cooperation, leadership and competition In Adulthood - Males demonstrate more competitiveness, less agreement and less self- disclosure than females Self- disclosure Levels in Friendship: - Lowest- male/male - Higher- male/ female - Highest- female/ female In heterosexual marriages, males most often name their wives as their best friend Women most often name another female as their best friend (not their husband) Divorce is therefore more emotionally devastating for men. Identity Status: Foreclosed: avoid conflict Diffused: difficulty with commitment, adopt partner’s identity, lack of depth Moratorium: still figuring it out! Achieved: most successful - Males are more likely to enter into a committed relationship AFTER career plans are made - Clarification of interpersonal relationships precedes career plans for females - Women marry younger - Women initiate divorce more often Attachment and intimacy (research of Phil Shaver, UC Davis) - Securely attached (55%): feel close to others, can depend on them - Insecure anxious (20%): not trusting, cling to partner, jealous, overly dependent - Insecure avoidant (25%): uncomfortable being close, find intimacy unpleasant, little emotional expression (Anxious and Avoidant people can change status in adulthood if they get in a relationship with a securely attached person) Authenticity- to feel and know I am being real, genuine, and honest in relationships Empathy- to attend to other’s feeling and thoughts How do we foster healthy relationships? - Mutual empathy (emotional responsively) - Mutual authenticity (relational honesty) Sexual Solicitation (10-29): Making sense of what we see and do Bronfrenbrennar (1979) Where kids live: media Youth and media use - Kids spend an average of six and a half hour per day with media - Average child sees 30,000 ads/yea Who’s telling the story? (Very few different types of people work in the corporate advertising) (Media shows us something so many times that we feel like its normal, ex: thin blonde woman doing laundry at home) (Bandura’s we learn from watching people) October 31 : Marriage Average duration of a marriage: nine years Average age at marriage: 1950’s- Males: Just under 23 years Females: Just above 20 years Presently- Males: Just above 27 years Females: Just above 25 years Andrew Cherlin “The Marriage-Go-Round: The State of Marriage and the Family in American Today” (Am I getting what I need from this marriage, not am I giving what you need for this marriage) AMERICANS GET MARRIED MORE, DIVORCED MORE AND HAVE MRE LIVE-IN PARTNERS THAN PEOPLE IN ANY OTHER WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZED NATION Children who have experienced multiple transitions at home: - Have more behavior problems in school - Have sex at an earlier age - Less likely to graduate from high school - More likely to have a child outside of marriage Children born in America are far more likely to see their parents’ partnerships break up than are children in most countries Cherlin’s advice is to slow down!! Myths about marriage: 1. Conflict will ruin your marriage (Unresolved will) 2. Affairs are the main cause of divorce 3. Men are not biologically made for marriage 4. The best marriages are when couples have the same interests What helps to make marriage work? 1. Solving solvable problems 2. Letting your partner influence you 3. Creating s shared meaning of marriage 4. Turn toward each other rather than away An unhappy marriage increases an individual’s risk of getting sick by 30% and can shorten a person’s life by 4 years Pew research study Results: In 1950’s 60’s and 70’s, the consistent top two reasons for choosing to marry were “Having children and creating stability.” Presently, The top reason for choosing to marry id for “Personal happiness and Fulfillment” The percentage of Americans who consider children as a very important to a successful marriage has dropped from 65% in the 90’s to 40% in 2011 Sharing household chores has moved up in importance from 47% in 90’s to 62% presently Career women’s marital satisfaction decreases when marital involved s unequal division of labor Pew research center- (In rank order, what is important in a marriage) Being faithful Happy sexual relationship Sharing household chores Adequate income Good Housing Shared religious beliefs Shared interests Having children Agreement of politics Advantages of parenthood: - Giving and receiving warmth and affection - Experiencing the stimulation and fun that children add to life - Being accepted a responsibility and mature member of the community - Experiencing new growth and learning opportunities that add mean
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