HDFS - Class Notes (Exam 1).docx

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Pennsylvania State University
Human Development and Family Studies
HD FS 229
Sarah Kollat

HDFS – Class Notes 1 3 Main Domains of Development o 1. Physical/Perceptual  Physical- How do we grow physically as human beings? • Height, weight, etc. • How our brain changes and grows over time • Motor development  Perceptual- the 5 senses • Vision and hearing are the core ones, and then taste, smell, and touch o 2. Cognitive  Our thought processes (internal) – how we think about the world  How we solve problems – how we navigate our world when we experience obstacles o 3. Emotional/Social  Emotional: • When do our emotions begin? • How do children learn to control their emotions?  Social: • Relationships o Early on: caregiver o Peer relationships – how we get along with other children o Romantic partnership • These domains DO NOT operate independently- they interact with each other. o If a child is delayed in one domain, it will affect the other domains as well.  Ex.As motor skills emerge and kids become more independent, we become more than just a nurturer, but also a discipliner. Periods of Development • 1. Prenatal (contraception to birth) • 2. Infancy/Toddlerhood (birth-2 years) • 3. Early Childhood (2-6 years) • 4. Middle Childhood (6-11 years) • 5.Adolescence (11-18 or 20 years) • 6. Emerging Adulthood (18-25 years) o New addition b/c of Western culture &more people attending college o Having the freedoms of adulthood without the responsibilities 2 Different Ways to look at Development • General Development – what do children do on average o What is normal across children o Does NOT give predictive power o Ex. When do they begin to crawl • Individual Differences o Focuses on the unique characteristics that make up a person’s life o How one person is different o Looks at genetic personality, socioeconomic status, parenting styles, etc. and their impact Holistic Theories of Development • Behaviorism o Watson, Pavlov, Skinner o Focuses on the environment  How environmental experiences shape who we are o Reinforcement and Punishment were emphasized by Skinner  Reinforcement: increasing the likelihood of a behavior • Leads things to become part of our personality  Punishment: decreasing the likelihood of a behavior • Leads us to drop things from our ethos  What we are reinforced and punished for shape who we are.  Change reinforcement and punishment in order to improve development. • Ex. Teach parents to ignore grocery store tantrums for candy bars Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment (Good Stimulus) (Bad Stimulus) **One of the most valuable shaping Present a Stimulus mechanisms in behavior. ** Adding an aversive to decrease behavior. ex. Stickers, verbal praise, food (primaryx. Soap in mouth after bad word, adding chores, yelling, spanking reinforcer), attention, physical affection Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment (Bad Stimulus) (Good Stimulus) Decreasing behavior by taking something Remove a Stimulus Taking away something unfavorable to away the child likes. increase behavior. **Second most utilized** Ex. Stopping nagging ex. Time out  Social Learning Theory – we learn by seeing other people reinforced and punished • More likely to do a behavior if we see someone reinforced for doing a behavior. • Less likely to do a behavior if we see someone punished for doing a behavior. • Albert Bandura’s Bobo-Doll Experiment o Focused on what makes kids aggressive o Did a whole series of research on it o He had 2 groups of kids (and made sure they were the same in their natural aggressive tendencies)  Control group: watched grad students playing with toys in a non-violent way  Treatment/Experimental Group: watched grad students playing with toys in very aggressive ways o The treatment/experimental group was much more aggressive verbally and physically when “playing” with the Bobo Doll.  Those children continued their aggression even months later. o Cathartic theory (getting it out of your system by watching it on TV) was incorrect. • Evolutionary Theory o Darwin o Naturally Selected Biology/Behaviors  Each species on earth has evolved certain traits that help them survive and live long enough to reproduce (and that trait carries from generation to generation)  Naturally Selected Biology – physical features • Ex. Opposable thumbs for writing/painting/music etc.  This is related to General Development – weALL have these naturally selected traits – its normal • Ex. Reflexes, attachment o Moro reflex – newborn is born with this; infant perceives they are falling and instinctively reach arms and legs out to grab onto something o Attachment: love between a caregiver and a child  Love is a necessity to survive  Cute baby syndrome: observation that babies are really cute • We treasure what we find beautiful – reluctant to harm cute things. • Babies have big eyes compared to body, tiny noses, soft skin – all these things incline us to care for them.  Instinct to feel distress when baby cries leads us to care for them. o Environmental Adaptation  Individual Differences  No matter what environment we are thrust into, we will probably find out how to survive there.  We will do whatever it takes to survive and change whatever we have to. • Ex.Abused children avoid adult attention • Ecological Systems Theory o Bronfenbrenner  Bi-directional – the environment affects the child, and the child affects the environment • Ex. Temperament (the foundation for our later personality; inherited) o Easy babies (born happy, smiley, love experiences) vs. difficult babies (show negative emotion and don’t like change, bad sleepers and eaters)  Easy babies evoke higher quality parenting (the effect on the environment)  Difficult babies evoke poor quality parenting due to high stress • It is in contrast to what we would originally think – environment affects the child  Hierarchal systems – used to classify the environment • Microsystem- the environment where the child is living their daily life o Home/immediate family o Neighborhood area o School/daycare • Mesosystem- the connections/influences between microsystems o Informative in therapeutic work with children o Ex. Parental marital conflict  stress  makes kids act out in friendships or not pay attention in school because they are worried • Exosystem- child rarely enters this system in daily life; not part of normal activities o Ex. Parent’s workplace: parent doesn’t like job  projection of negative emotions on the kids • Macrosystem- Not something the kid is living life in; has to do with laws/policies o Ex.Access to free public education • Chronosystem- all the systems (micro to macro) changing over time o Systems are not stable – they change as the child grows  Ex.Anew sibling born changes microsystem Steps in Processing Behavioral Situations – (Potential Essay for Exam 1) • What is the stimulus? o Consequence of child’s behavior • Is the stimulus good or bad? o Did the child like what happened or not? • Is it presented or removed? o Did that change add or remove the stimulus? ALittle Cheat Sheet • Good stimulus + presented = Positive Reinforcement • Good stimulus + removed = Negative Punishment • Bad stimulus + presented = Positive Punishment • Bad stimulus + removed = Negative Reinforcement Label the following examples: • John takes the trash out so his Mom will stop nagging him o Negative reinforcement; learned “ I need to do what mom tells me to do” • Camilla is put in the time out corner for stealing $5 from her Mom’s wallet o Negative punishment; learned that stealing is bad/wrong • Trudy is given a cookie for earning anA+ on her paper. o Positive reinforcement; learned “Earning good grades gets me fun stuff… School is great!” • Randy’s mother yelled at him when he drew pictures all over the living room walls. o Positive punishment; learned destruction of property is wrong • Emily wants a Barbie doll. Emily tantrums and hits her Mom until her Mom says yes and buys it. o Positive reinforcement; learned “hitting mommy/a tantrum gets me things I want” • Julia throws a fit and spits at her teachers whenever they try to make her do math problems. Julia’s teachers no longer make her work on math o Negative reinforcement; learned “If I spit/throw a fit, I won’t have to do things I don’t like” • Andy’s parents never pay attention to him, unlessAndy hits his little brother. Then they get upset and talk to him about why he shouldn’t hit his brother o Positive reinforcement; learns “hitting my brother is the only way to get time with my parents” Research Methods • Observational – ideal for developmental research o Seeing behavior occur in front of us  increased reliability and validity o Two types:  Naturalistic Observation: watching children in their natural environment • Ex. Watching kids play at recess; entering home environment • The researcher tries not to impact situation  Structured Observation: telling participants what to do; creating a task for participants • Typically in lab setting • Ex. Still face experiment: stare at baby with a blank face o Tells a lot about the care parent is giving to the child • Problems: o Expensive o Time consuming o Observer influence- when people know they are being watched, they tend to behave more appropriately  Don’t get honest behavior o Observer bias- within the researcher; tendency to see observations support own beliefs and hypotheses  Ex. Proving that boys are more aggressive than girls: researcher says that slapping with boys at recess is aggression but with girls it is just playful • Self-Reports o Most common way to collect data (b/c it is quick and easy) o Two types:  Clinical interview- you and researcher sit down and talk with a general theme of the conversation • No standard set of questions • Great for following up in the future • Offers depth • Hard to analyze  Structured Interview/Questionnaire- same set of questions asked to every participant • Cannot go beyond set of questions • Most common way to get data in behavioral research • Sometimes vague wording, scale, or question formation is bad o Problems:  Honesty issue • People less likely to be honest about deep/intense things even if informed its anonymous • Vague wording • Scale vagueness – (ex. How is very true different from somewhat true?) • Psychophysiological methods – measure of physical markers (we assume these markers indicate an emotional state or a thought process that is occurring) o fMRI- slightly different version of an MRI; CAT scans are similar  Give a 3D image of our bodies  Series of tons of x-rays  Can see how brain structures differ over time etc.  f stands for function – tells which parts of brain are activated during certain activities  Problem: requires you remain very still and go into a big tube with loud noises – hard for kids o EEG- places electrodes on scalp  Does not require you to be still and has no noises  Limited b/c it only shows us which parts of brain are active (no 3D image) o NIROT- allows you to get some of 3D image and some of the electrical activity  Able to collect this mainly through electrodes  Relatively mobile  Best compromise we have o Problems:  Assumption that physical markers mean something about emotional and cognitive markers o Measuring heart rate – physical marker  Assumption we make: increase in heart rate = fear; decrease in heart rate = boredom (or really interested) o Blood pressure  Increase = increase in anger or frustration o Hormone levels  Cortisol The Grandma Effect • Grandma believes everything she reads – if it is print, it must be true! • All studies are NOT created equal – there is good science and bad science! o When it comes to media, good science is often boring because there are such slight changes…. So they tend to exaggerate findings. Research Designs • Correlational Design o Acorrelation shows that two variables are related to each other.  Ex. (increase in X  decrease in Y) o Used most because it’s the EASIEST… not the best o Measure variables as they are naturally occurring in the population o Correlation does NOT equal causation!  Missing two key Components: • There is no Manipulation of variables o Hard to assign participants to groups o Just observing things as they naturally occur  There is a potential for a confounding variable – a third variable that you have not measured in your study, but it creates the relationship between X and Y • Falsely makes it seem like X is causing Y • Ex. Saying that getting up early  better GPA o X = Early Risers o Y= High GPA o Confound (Z) =??? (Time to eat breakfast, more motivated if you can make yourself get up earlier, more time to study etc.) • True experiment o Manipulates variables o RandomAssignment o Can make a statement of causation o Developmental research is limited b/c you can’t assign someone to be male or female, or put one in a wealthy or un-wealthy family, etc. • Types of Correlational and True Experiment Studies o Longitudinal–  **IDEAL- b/c it’s the only way to assess developmental change (actually understanding how human beings grow and change over time)  Follow same group of people over time (years, decades)  Problem: • Have to wait for the kids to grow up – patience • Expensive • If working for research institution, you have to continually be publishing or else you lose your job o Cross-Sectional  Quick and Easy • Just measure different groups of kids at different ages  CANNOT make statements about developmental change. • Cohort Effects o Variations in society/culture/experiences/environment among children Nature Vs. Nurture Behavioral Genetics • Trying to parse apart individual contributions made by: o Nature o Nurture- look at parenting • Heritability- the individual differences in observed behavior that are due to our genetics o Genotype- DNAsequencing; what is written in our genes o Phenotype- how the genotype is actually expressed in our life/external world o You can have the same genotype and have different phenotypes.  Our environment affects which genes get turned on and turned off – epigenome. o Trait = heritability (genes) + environment  Heritability coefficient: Estimates range from 0.0-1.0 • Coefficient of 0 = completely environment and 0 due to genetics • Coefficient of 1 = 100% due to genetics and 0 due to environment • Really no traits are fully 0 or 1 – Rather they are somewhere within the spectrum. o Ex. Depression is 30% due to genes = .3 o Ex. Schizophrenia is 80-86% due to genetics = .8 o Ex. IQ is 50% both = .5 o Ex. Temperament is 40-50% due to genes = .4 o How do you test for Heritability?  Twin Studies: Type 1 • MZ (monozygotic) twins (identical twins) raised apart o Share 100% of their DNA • Different environments b/c separated at birth • Bring them back together and measure them on types of traits • If there is similarity – assume due to genetics • Limitations: o Adoption environments similar  Bad b/c the assumption made is that they are raised in completely different environments  Also, adoptive parents sometimes parent the same way o Hard to find these twins  Child welfare laws changed – no longer allowed to adopt twins/triplets/etc. into different families  Twin Studies: Type 2 • Compare MZ twins (100% genetically the same) raised together and DZ (fraternal- share 50% of DNA) raised together • Uses controls for Shared Environmental Effects o Left with the genetic components of a trait o Heritability = (MZ same – DZ same) x2  Heritability = ((MZ100G+sharedE) – ((DZ50G+sharedE)) x2  (multiplying by 2 accounts for 50% shared genes of DZ twins) Does Family/Nurture Matter? • How Nature and Nurture Work Together o Reaction range- genes determine reaction to environment  Genes limit our potential responses to the environment  Gene-Environment interaction  Genes set the range (the min and max for any gene expression) • No matter what our environment does, we will never go beyond the min or max – impossible  Environment determines WHERE (within the min and max) the trait will come out in our life • Environment affects children differently (two children can respond to same environment very differently – ex. Sibling differences)  Height • Genetic range = 5’2” – 5’7” • Environment: o Poor nutrition  5’2” vs. Good nutrition  5’7” o Gene-Environment Correlations  Genes affect the environments we’re exposed to  Things that appear to be solely due to environment aren’t • Genetic influence is also a part  Make things more likely (probability), NOT definite  Passive correlation • Applies more to young children (infants-elementary school) • Parents choose environment • Environment correlated with child’s genes • Ex. Reading o Parents love to read (genes) o Create an environment supportive of reading for their child (read to them at night, have books available, trips to the library, you modeling reading) o Then, the kid loves to read –Why???  B/c of the environment created by the parent, but also b/c of shared genes with the parent • ONLY apply in biological families (not adoption)  Active Correlation • Applies more to older children • Children choose environments that reflect (are supported by) their genes • Thought of as niche-picking – narrow down pathways for life over time • Ex.AthleticAbility o Child plays tee-ball and is really good at it (genes) o She chooses to play softball in middle school  Does not do band or drama (narrow down those pathways) o She chooses to play softball in high school  Plays soccer in off-season, too o She plays in college on a scholarship  She chooses a major in sports medicine  Evocative Correlation • Apply to Younger and Older children • Related to Brofenbrenner’s work: Bidirectional o Child can influence the environment (genes affect the environmental experiences and reactions that they trigger in their life) • Child evokes certain environmental responses o These environmental responses encourage the child’s genetic potential/reinforce the child’s genetic foundations • Ex. Infant’s temperament (and their later personality) o Easy babies: their positivity and warmth tends to evoke better quality parenting; happier parents caring for them o Difficult babies: Negative emotion makes it more difficult to caregive well  more negative emotion • Environmental responses feed in and encourage the responses of that child!  Gene-Environment Correlations Exercise (POTENTIAL EXAM ESSAY) • Give DETAILED examples of how EACH of the 3 gene-environmental correlations (passive, active, and evocative) may have influenced Nina’s development using information provided in the following description. Nina is an electrical engineer in New York City. Nina was raised by her mother in Brooklyn. For as long as she can remember, Nina’s mother would organize a game after dinner: practicing addition, subtraction, and (later on) even algebra using items in their home. For example, Nina’s mother might line up on the counter all the fruit in their fridge and ask Nina to add them together. Nina’s mother had always loved math—their house was filled with all level of math books and the most recent copy of Mathematica was always on their kitchen table. When Nina was old enough, her mother enrolled her in a preschool that focused on early math education. Throughout her school years, Nina was an eager student. Especially in math clas
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