HDFS Class Notes for Exam 3.docx

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Human Development and Family Studies
HD FS 229
Sarah Kollat

Class Notes #3 Temperament • What is temperament? – the origin of what will eventually become our adult personality o Similar to Personality o More based on GENETICS – what we inherit from our parents o Style of RESPONSE that each of us has to the environment – Reactionary style  Commonality across these reactions  The way we respond to the world has a consistency across situations  Consistent over time, too o Two forms of expression: Behaviors and Emotions • Types of Temperaments o Thomas and Chess:  Started by categorizing children in three areas: • Easy: 40% - show more positive emotions; less-easily distressed; like new situations; very flexible with changes; rhythms (eating and sleeping); easily soothed • Difficult: 10% - hard to parent; increased risk of abuse; cry all the time –colic; their negative emotions are more easily changed in the environment; do not like novelty; bat at routine (eating and sleeping); more easily frustrated • Slow-to-Warm-Up: 15% - have a lot of energy and are active, but are subdued in emotions; name comes from their reaction to novel situations – cautious in new circumstances • **Note: Percentages are specific to US • They do not describe all children (which is why the percent’s do not add up to 100)  Proposed 9 components – every single person can be described by these; offer a high to low range of each • Activity Level – ratio of physically active engagement to how much they spend inactive o HighActivity Level: always moving around • Rhythmicity – refers to a child’s biological rhythms o Applies mostly to infancy o High rhythmicity: sleep well and eat well; biological rhythms are regular (easier to care for) o Low rhythmicity: irregular biological rhythms (harder to care for) • Distractibility –are you able to maintain attention with distractors? o High on Distractibility with negative emotions- if something else happens in the environment, your attention is drawn away from the task at hand  Easy-tempered babies are easily distracted from negative experiences/emotions o Low on Distractibility with negative emotions: not able to focus even with other things going on in the environment  Difficult babies – not easily distracted from negative experiences/emotions • Approach/Withdrawal – two ends of a spectrum (either high on one end or the other) o High onApproach – like new experiences  Easy-tempered babies  Tends to lead to dare-devil activities o High on Withdrawal – like things to stay the same; do not like novelty; novelty evokes distress  Difficult children • Adaptability –how easily are you able to change your daily routine? o Applies more to later childhood – not very relevant in infancy o High adaptability: Eat at different restaurants all the time; don’t have to go to bed at same time every night; try new activities  Easy-tempered children o Low adaptability: wear same outfits; could east pasta every night; same routine every day  Difficult children • Attention Span – when it is just you and the task at hand, how long can you attend to that task? (No distractors) • Intensity of Reaction – how intense/extreme are our emotional experiences (positive and negative emotions) o More intense positive reactions and less intense negative = Easy-tempered babies o More intense negative emotion and less intense positive emotion = Difficult children • Threshold of Responsiveness - How much stimulation does it take for you to feel an emotion o High threshold – takes a lot of stimulation to elicit an emotion from them o Low threshold – does not take much to elicit emotions from them o Easy-tempered – high threshold for negative emotions and low threshold for positive emotions o Difficult - low threshold for negative emotions and high threshold for positive emotions • Quality of Mood – Range from positive to negative o Easy-tempered – positive quality of mood o Difficult-tempered – negative/darker quality of mood • Is Temperament Consistent? o It is moderately consistent – temperamental style we have as babies has connections to adult personality o More consistent with age – longer we wait to measure temperament, the more consistent it seems to stay  Stabilizes at 3 years  Has to do with neurology – how our brain grows – rapid growth early on allows the environment to have a bigger impact on our temperament  Environmental impact strongest in the first 3 years of life b/c we are making lasting changes to our brain and its structure o Quality vs. Expression  Quality = where are you on the 9 qualities above • Moderate stability  Expression = how we show/express our temperamental qualities • Changes a lot • Ex. activity level – babies high in activity level are likely to stay in that realm for the rest of life, but how they express it changes a lot with age. o Before able to crawl (7 months), they are fussy, annoyed, fidgety, uncomfortable – this is how they express their activity level o Once they start crawling, they are able to move like they want to… so they are active and engaged instead of fussy and fidgety o The BIG 5- measures 5 elements of adult personality  Extraversion • Extraverted (outgoing, sociable) vs. introverted (shy, withdrawn) o Measure as infants and then wait for them to grow up and see what they look like o Adults that are extroverted were high on approach as infants  Continuity  Neuroticism • Neurotic (like things a certain way, nervous, anxious worrisome) o Neurotic adults had a negative quality of mood as infants • What creates Temperament? o Biology/Genes  50% Heritability • But, certain qualities are more genetically based than others b/c it is multi-faceted o Ex.Activity level – Strong genetic component o Ex.Approach and withdrawal – Strong genetic component o Ex.Attention span – Strong genetic component  **Contributes to Consistency – (genes stay the same) o Environment  Parental Influence • Neural Connections – the way we are cared for (especially early on, but also continuing on into adolescence) can change our brain structure • Sensitive face-to-face play – parent is in front of infant & have to be really good at reading baby’s cues (when they like or dislike something) – recognize when baby wants parent to play with them or give them a break from playing o Studied most looking at parents of difficult children o Applies mostly to infants and young kids o Cues to look for:  Wants to be engaged = make eye contact, vocalize (if able to), smile  Needs a breather = look away (shifting attention), slobber o Teach parents to read cues  better sensitive face-to-face play  less difficult babies  decreased abuse rates • Inconsistent discipline – child does not know what is expected of them o Children find comfort in regularity and knowing what is expected of them o Inconsistency is frequent with parents with substance abuse o Children with inconsistency have a more negative quality of mood • Parental rejection o Love withdrawal – more serious form of parental rejection; love is contingent on child’s performance  If you don’t dress a certain way/get a certain grade, I’m not going to love you anymore.  Children tend to be higher on withdrawal – fearfulness of novelty – don’t have the security of their parent’s caregiving so they do not feel comfortable exploring • Through adolescence – continues over development  Cultural Differences • American culture – considered to be individualistic – value individual achievement o CompareAmerican individualistic culture withAsian collectivistic cultures  Children inAsian cultures tend to have lower activity level (physically), less intense negative emotions (intensity of reaction), and are more easily distracted from negative emotion • Help them fit into a group  Americans are more active, more intense negative emotion, and are not easily distracted with facing distress • Things that spur more individualistic achievement  Nutrition – can impact kids personalities • Comparing children that are well-nourished to malnourished o Children who are malnourished in infancy have higher levels of withdrawal- more fearful of new experiences  Frank Sulloway: Born to Rebel • When righting his book, he was interested in scientific revolutionaries (scientists who were willing to propose a different theory than was commonly believed – changed the way people viewed science) o Darwin, Galileo, etc. o Wondered what led these individuals to be so courageous  Found that birth order was the answer! • Birth order (order you’re born among siblings) affects personality and revolutionary status o Focuses on evolutionary things o Within a family, siblings are competing with each other for parental resources even though they love each other.  Resources competed for: parental attention and parental affection – need these resources to survive • Finding a Niche within the family – siblings want to make themselves unique in a family b/c that gets them more attention and affection o First borns: not competing with anyone else – have “shotgun” to pick whatever niche they want- whatever fits best o Later borns: pick a niche that is different than older siblings  The further you are out, the more flexible you have to be in selecting one because your siblings all picked already • Revolutionary scientists are more likely to be later borns (most among the youngest in big families) – more inclined to revolutionary sign of thought • 7 year gap is the restart age • First borns are not pushed to be flexible so they are more likely to be difficult • Later borns, because they have to adjust (especially the farther out you get) are easier in temperament • Goodness of Fit o How well the environment fits child’s temperament Parent Child o Child has difficult genetically based temperament (crying more, fussy, etc). Parent has option of being more negative in caregiving (stressed, etc.) making the child more difficult, or the parent can provide goodness of fit – (sensitive face-to-face play, consistent discipline, involving child in disciple and seeing what the child thinks is appropriate punishment). o Goodness of fit makes child less difficult and easier to care for  happy, healthy family o Decreased difficulty  decreased abuse rates Attachment • Harry Harlow – 1960’s o Primate Experiment  Experimental Question – What is the foundation for the connection between parent and child? • Freud said mother-child bond was based on the need to be fed – not love/affection/emotional connection o Harlow argued this was much too simplistic  Set-up of Study • Took newborn Rhesus monkeys and separated them from biological moms • Given choice of feeding mom (made of wire mesh; not approachable; had a feeding bottle attached to her) and the comfort mom (made of wire mesh, but wrapped with terry cloth; offered opportunity for monkey to cling to her and seek physical comfort; did not offer food)  Which “Mommy” did they prefer? – Where did they spend the bulk of their time? • The monkeys preferred the nurture mom above the feeding mom  mother-child bond is not based on feeding but rather on love/attachment • John Bowlby o Attachment: strong affectionate bond we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress  Can be attached to multiple people  Key element separating attachment from just liking a person: specifically seeking out those people for comfort in times of stress/danger o Adaptation – evolutionary focus to his work  Attachment is something we see across the human species and we adapt it over time b/c it helps us survive • Have built in characteristics that help us bond to our children and parents o Child-parent: Children bond to their parents  Cute baby phenomenon o Parent-child: Parents bond with their children  Hear baby cry  instinctive distress  nurture that child and build a bond • Haven of Safety – cannot survive as infants alone for at least first 7 years; people take care of us – built into DNA; the fact that we will love our children is built into our species and has helped us evolve over time o Components ofAttachment  Social – we attach to other human beings within relationships  Emotional – the way attachment is based in us is through strong positive emotions; we feel for another person • Seeking them out in times of distress  Cognitive – • Internal working model – a schema that we have for relationships; the way we conceptualize a relationship o Based upon our first relationship – with our primary caregivers who teach us what a relationship is supposed to be like o Carry this model with us through our lives – it can be molded, but it affects how we expect to be treated in friendships and romantic partnerships  Abusive first relationship leads to an expectation that a relationship is something in which I am hurt, etc.  Good relationship leads to an expectation to be taken care of, feel good about myself, etc.  Behavioral – demonstrated through our behavior towards our child • Communicates love: o Babies: fed when hungry, comforted when crying o Older: help with homework, asking about school o Romantic partnerships: doing things so that mate doesn’t have to (Her husband running kids around so she can go run) o Developmental Course st  1 Stage: Pre-attachment (birth-6 weeks) • Baby taking in big, wide world • Attachment not present yet o Infants do not show a preference for caregiver over other random adults o No separation anxiety (when an infant is upset that their caregiver is not with them)  2 Stage: Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks – 8 months) • 6 weeks – begin to social smile – smile more based on social experiences • Start to show preference for parents over random adults • Still not showing separation anxiety  3 Stage: Clear-cut attachment (8 months – 2 years) • 8 months – object permanence – realize that objects exist even when we cannot see them • Separation anxiety begins o Knows parent is out in the world and not hanging out with them from object permanence • Attachment is fully formed – b/c we show preference for caregivers and show separation th anxiety  4 Stage: Formation of reciprocal relationship (2 years +) • as we ease into adolescence/adulthood, we shift from needing physical closeness to feel attached o Physical closeness  psychological closeness (know that even when far away, they still love and care about us) • MeasuringAttachment o Strange Situation  MaryAinsworth  9 Different parent-stranger scenarios • Have to do it in a lab setting – new environment for child; a little out of comfort zone • Ideal age 7-8 months to 2 Years – most commonly done around age 1 • Cool toys to play with • Times where the caregiver and child are together – How do they interact when they are together • Times where child is alone in the room – How do they react to the parent being gone • Times when child is with a stranger in the room • Times when child, caregiver, and stranger are together in the room • How does the child respond to people being present/absent? • Looking at 3 things to diagnose attachment style: o Secure-base behavior – looks like the child is orbiting around the caregiver; will go explore the toys, but check in with parent regularly (Emotional refueling - eye contact, touch/affection), and then go out and explore again  Looking for this when parent and child are in the room together o Separation – How does the child respond when caregiver leaves?  Wide spectrum of response – help indicate the quality of attachment o Reunion – focused on what happens when parent returns to room after being gone  Wide spectrum of response – (some don’t care, some angry, etc.) • Types of attachment: o Secure:  Ideal – What we want children to possess  60% of U.S. Children  When in room together, use parent as a secure base – a lot of engagement  Distressed by separation – sometimes at an intense level  When parent returns, they are immediately/very quickly calmed down – security from caregiver o Insecure:  Not Ideal – Not what we want for children  Very broad category – can be expressed many ways • Avoidant – 15% of U.S. Children o Don’t use caregiver as secure base; feel no need to check in; disconnect o Don’t really notice when caregiver leaves; disinterest in parent – they have learned to not rely on caregiver o Disinterested in reunion – no attempt to connect • Resistant/Ambivalent – 10% of U.S. Children – rarest form o Can’t decide if they do or do not want to be with caregiver o Don’t use parent as a secure base because they cling to the caregiver and do not want to explore – scared that if they leave, the caregiver won’t be there waiting anymore o When parent leaves, they are hysterical, severely distressed o When parent comes back, they are not soothed; they cling to caregiver and then arch away at the same time – want to be close, but half-mad they left • Disorganized – 15% of U.S. Children o Do not follow a set pattern o Can be indicative of abuse or maltreatment in the home environment – unhealthy parent-child relationship o Often show dazed/out-of-it expression – not engaged with environment o Children purposefully avert eye contact with parent o Contradictory emotional experiences – smiling and crying at the same time • Outcomes of Attachment Types o Secure vs. Insecure  Secure do better than insecure – it is ideal because they have a healthy model of relationships  Securely attached have better friendships and romantic partnerships – relationships across lifespan are healthier b/c of their internal working model when they are young  Secure are less likely to show behavioral issues (less aggressive, violent)  Secure are more compliant – follow instructions better  Secure have mental health benefits • Less likely to experience depression • Less likely to experience anxiety  Secure are more cognitively advanced (in the school setting) • Secure construct their knowledge that Piaget thought was so important o Rutter el al. (2001)  Research Question: • Interested in the resilience of kids who come from deprived orphanages o Once they are adopted can their symptoms be corrected • Look at how powerful a healthy home environment is  Who was studied? • Kids under the age of 3.5 (at time of adoption) o Group 1: from depreived environments of Romanian orphanages o Group 2: adopted kids from the UK that were not exposed to deprivation; control group o Differences between the two were assumed to be due to deprivation o Measured these children at age 4, and again at age 6.  Main findings: nd • Age at Entry (2 paragraph under “Discussion” heading - What age did the child enter a home environment/were they adopted? o The older that children were for their age of entry, the more symptoms they showed o Prior to 6 months, they resembled the UK kids, even though they experienced intense deprivation prior to that – suggests resiliency prior to 6 months • Romanian vs. UK adoptees o Romanian adoptees had more symptoms than UK adoptees • Clusters o Cluster 2 – largest cluster of Romanian children – had no symptoms  Even ones not adopted prior to 6 months  The norm is that kids ARE NOT going to have significant issues – should not assume that children adopted when they are older are going to have problems – healthy home environment corrects for symptoms • 6 month marker – suggests resiliency prior to 6 months  Outcomes of Institutional Privation • Attachment disturbance o Measured looking at how child responded to stranger compared to adoptive parent – preferred stranger o During times of stress, these children didn’t seek out their adoptive caregivers for support – there hadn’t been enough caregivers in orphanages • Inattention/Overactivity – Higher probability of inattention – hyperactivity – problem with behavior control • Cognitive Impairment – neurology affected • Quasi-Autistic Symptoms - Showing similar behavior symptoms of autistic children (rock themselves for hours, bang heads on hard surfaces, spinning to self-soothe) • NOT associated with emotional difficulties, peer relationships, conduct problems  What does this teach us? • Adopting children who are older is not associated with significant symptoms in that child • Healthy home environment can offer a lot to a child from a less than ideal situation – correct problems • RESILIENCY – can help them achieve a healthier functioning level • What creates Attachment? o Parenting style  Sensitivity/Responsivity • For secure attachment, we need caregivers that are sensitive and responsive – baby cries, you pick it up (especially up to 3 months... after that, they can self soothe a little); when infant needs interaction, you provide it • Need to be consistent  Interactional Synchrony – parent and child are in sync with each other – an “emotional dance” • Sensitive face-to-face play – being able to read baby’s cues of when they want interaction and when they need a break • Characteristics that lead to Security: o When infant indicates they want attention (eye contact, vocalization like babbling and cooing), the parent responds o When they need a breather, they shift attention (look away), and the caregiver backs off • Characteristics that lead toAvoidant: o When the baby wants attention, parents ignore the infant  Baby learns “When I seek you out, you are unavailable” o When baby does not want interaction (like when sleeping), parent chooses to hang out with them (ex. wakes them up)  This leads to negative expression – baby learns it is best to avoid parent because no positive emotion comes from time with them • Characteristics that lead to Resistant/Ambivalent: o Parent usually rejects/ignores the baby, but once in awhile gets it right o Teaches baby “Once in awhile my parents are awesome, but never know when this is going to happen” o Inconsistency  anxiety o Family Stressors  Families that are under stress  more insecure attachment • Ex of family stress = parents going through divorce, financial struggles, violent communities o Parent’s Attachment  Parents with secure attachment tend to create secure attachment for their children  Insecurity has a higher probability to lead to insecurity with own children  You are taught about caregiving by parents, and that shapes your working model, so similarities tend to exist  Intergenerational Transmission – this transfer from generation to generation o Does the infant matter?  Easy-tempered babies are more likely to have secure attachment b/c it’s easier to be consistent with them  Difficult babies goes back to goodness of fit • If parents can create goodness of fit, the difficult infant will have a secure attachment • If parents are unable to meet kids’needs, insecure attachment is likely • Does your InfantAttachment affect your Adult Relationship Style? o Adult attachment:  Has its roots in infant attachment (internal working model – how we think about relationships when we are young affects how we think of relationships when we are older) • Earned securists – individuals who, in their relationship with their parents, created an insecure attachment, but at some point in their life as they grew up, had a relationship with someone who taught them what a healthy relationship should be (changed working model for the better) o Just because bad things happened when you are young does not mean you have to have bad relationships forever  Types: • Secure/autonomous – (secure style as infant) – people you want to be dating o Alot of positive emotion and enjoyment in relationships o Not afraid of commitment – greater longevity in relationships o Recognize that there are ups and downs in relationships – realistic – willing to work through the bad to get back to the good o Seek out their partners in times of stress o Emotional intimacy is very present o Trust o Friendship – “My partner is my best friend” o Self-disclosure – tell about hopes, worries, etc. o Compromise • Avoidant/dismissing (avoidant infant style) o Scared of commitments – don’t want to be called bf or gf, just wanna be called at 2am o Physical intimacy but not emotional intimacy o Look at relationships as place they will be hurt, so they avoid it o No trust o No self-disclosure o Un-invested in relationship/distant • Dependent/preoccupied (ambivalent form in infancy) o “Stalkers” – overly invested in relationship but in an unhealthy way – entire life is relationship o Overinvestment is selfish – not focused on caring for partner, only on how their partner can care for them o Want to be with partner all the time, everyday for attention/support o Over-controlling o Self-focused o Insensitive  Contributors toAdultAttachment • Parents/Primary caregiver • Peers/Friends o Can help earned security o Beginning in middle school, friends have emotional intimacy and can be a source of security o Ruptured friendships can lead to insecurity/hesitation • Romantic Relationships o Partnerships – great opportunity to love someone into security o Break-Ups – can lead to loss of trust, security, and affect internal working model Promoting Resiliency in Relationships/Attachment – The Children’s Village of Grasi: Cesvaine, Latvia • Latvia is in Eastern Europe – former part of the Soviet Union; on the Baltic Sea • It is a private orphanage • Founded in 1995 by Christolf Alexander • Goal: To allow the children to surmount their difficulties and restore their psychological health • Parents were unable to care for them properly, kids were removed from the home, or parents passed away • Program: o Divided into small family homes (3 currently at Grasi) – to mimic typical family home b/c that’s most healthy  Co-ed homes with 7-8 children per home  Between the ages of 4 and 18 (there is a whole other system for infants and toddlers) o One caregiver per home on 24-hour or 48-hour shifts  Same two caregivers rotate – consistency o Schooling outside the village – integrate into community – make friends, connect with families o Many extracurricular activities – music in particular & soccer • Developmental Techniques: Promoting Resiliency o Directors are dedicated o Caregivers are dedicated o Create a family  Have meals together and talk about days  Chores (Required Helpfulness- whenever children are accountable for something, it helps for their recovery from trauma/neglect)  Caring forAnimals o Language Lessons  Volunteers are expected to share their native language with the children  They are taught French o Fostering/Travel  Fostered in families abroad during the summer – change to practice their language and live in a more definite family setting for a period of time • France, Romania, Italy o Long-Term Support  When kids turn 18, they still get support if they want • Grasi will pay for university or they go work in various different careers • If they do not want further help and go on their own and then get in gambling or drug trouble and come back, then Grasi accepts them back • Developmental Delays/Difficulties o Attachment Issues  Resistance – to creating relationships with adults  Contradictory Behaviors – seek affection but express anger • Ex. hold hand but dig fingernails into your skin o Learning Delays  Special Needs Children o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – results when the mom drinks alcohol during pregnancy; deficits in IQ for children; gives children difficulty with impulse control • International Adoption • Each country is different! • Many Regulations! o Ex. Latvia – need to be 18 years older than the child; if you want to adopt a healthy child, you need to adopt older children (infants only offered to Latvian families to continue culture); can adopt younger children if they’re a sibling of another child you’re adopting too • Process is long and involved! o Home Study – evaluated by a social worker  Have to present self positively to prove you will be a good parent  Open up about personal things like marriage and mental health o Medical Exam – tested for cancer, STDs, etc. o Paperwork, paperwork, paperwork!  Your dossier – medical records, letters of recommendation, etc. • The power of love, care, consistency Child Life Development – Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC • Child Life – a field that aims towards providing children and their families therapeutic support during hospitalization or a medical experience o US News and World Report named Child Life Specialist as one of the “Best-Kept Secret Careers” • Who is a Child Life Specialist? o Aprofessional who is specially trained to help children and their families understand and manage challenging life events and stressful healthcare experiences o Promotes effective coping through play, preparation education, and self-expression activities o Encourages optimum development of children facing a broad range of challenging experiences, particularly those related to healthcare and hospitalization • Child Life Specialists o Prepares for medical experiences o *Teaches techniques to h
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