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Pennsylvania State University
Lynn Nagle

PSYCH EXAM 1 Chapter 1 What Psychologists Do & Fields of Psychology; Behaviorism / Psychoanalysis (Pgs 6-8); How Today's Psychologists View.... (Perspectives); How Psychologists Study ...(Pgs. 12-21) Chapter 2 Nervous System (May skip "An Electrical Voyage"); Neurotransmitters (Understand their role, not specific neurotransmitters); Parts of the Nervous System, (Skip Pgs 36-37),AVoyage Through the Brain Pgs 38-44, (Skip Pgs 45-48), Genes & Chromosomes and Kinship Studies - Only. Chapter 9 I hate to say this, but ... Everything! Use charts onAngel & notes from class. Chapter 1 What Psychologists Do and Fields of Psychology 1. Behaviorism: Focuses on learning observable behavior 2. Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and the method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud. How today’s Psychologists View (Perspectives): 1. Psychodynamic: Unconscious motives and conflicts (her son fearing aliens) 2. Behaviorism: Learning via rewards and punishment or conditioning (Skinner and Havlov) 3. Human existentialism: Self awareness and free choice (touchy feely) 4. Cognitive: Memory, learning problems, processing info 5. Biological/Evolutionary: Body, brains and hormones/ Heredity, fittest to survive (Darwin) 6. Social cognitive/Sociocultural: Modeling and observing others/People’s differences influence thoughts and actions How Psychologists Study: 1. Critical Thinking 2. The Scientific Method 3. Samples and Populations: Sample must represent population 4. Random and Stratified Sampling: (Volunteer bias) Magazine surveys 5. The Case Study: Most are clinical. Obtained through interviews, questionnaires and psychological tests. 6. The Survey: Large sample of people answer questions about attitudes and behaviors 7. Correlation: +1 is HIGH, 0 is NONE, -1 is HIGH 8. The Experimental Method: a. Independent Variable: Manipulated by experimenters so effects may be determined (Changed and manipulated) b. Dependent Variables: Results c. Experimental groups: Obtain treatment d. Control Groups: Do not obtain treatment e. Blinds and Double Blinds: i. Placebo:Afake treatment (sugar pills) 9. Ethics of Research with Humans: a. Informed Consent: Individuals must provide this before they participate in research Chapter 2 Nervous System: Contains the brain, spinal cord, and other parts that make it possible for us to receive information. - Composed of NEURONS: Conduct impulses - and GLIAL CELLS: 1. Guide and support neurons 2. Insulate neurons. Form insulating substance called MYELIN. 3. Remove dead neurons and waste products from nervous system Parts of Neuron: a. Dendrite: Brings messages in b:Axons: Pull messages away. Conducts. c. Cell body: Maintains d. Myelin: Insulates e. End Bulbs: Contains Neurotransmitters f. Synapse: Space - Afferent Neurons: (SENSORY) Transmit messages from sensory receptors to spinal cord and brain - Efferent Neurons: (MOTOR) Transmit messages from brain or spinal cord to muscles and glands - All- or-None principal: (AXON POTENTINAL) Either a neuron fires or it doesn’t (when you get hurt it doesn’t stop mid way) - Synapse: The junction in which a neuron relays its message to another neuron. Neurotransmitters: Can excite or depress 1. Parasympathetic: Calms and/or depresses 2. Sympathetic: Fight or Flight. Excites! Parts of the Nervous System: 1. Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System: Transmits messages from brain or spinal ord to the muscles and glands. 3. Somatic Nervous System: Contains sensory and motor neurons. Transmits messages of sights, sounds, temperature, smell to CNS 4. Autonomic Nervous System: Regulates glands and muscles of internal organs. (Digestion, heartbeat etc.) a. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic (Fear gives you indigestion) Voyage through the Brain: - Right motor cortex controls left side of body - Left motor cortex controls right side of body 3. Forebrain: Largest and most visible - Covers outermost brain - Learning, speaking and emotions 4. Midbrain: Maintains consciousness - Reticular Formation (RAS):Attention, sleep and arousal 5. Hindbrain: 3 major structures a. Pons: Chemicals involved with sleep b. Medulla: Heart rate, blood pressure and respiration c. Cerebellum: Movement (sports), balance 6. Cortex: Outer, wrinkled surface a. Frontal lobe: Personality, emotions, voluntary behavior b. Parietal lobe
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