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Pennsylvania State University
Lynn Nagle

PYSCH EXAM REVIEW 2: Chapters 3,4, 5 and 6 Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception Terms: - Sensation: Stimulation of sensory receptors and the transmission of sensory information to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (Spinal Cord and Brain) - Perception: Not mechanical. An active process in which sensations are organized and interpreted to form an inner representation of the world. -“Sensation is to reception as perception is to organization” - Weakest/Absolute Threshold: The weakest level of a stimulus that is necessary to produce sensation. EX: MINIMUM BRIGHTNESS REQUIRED TO ACTIVATE THE VISUAL SENSORY SYSTEM -Difference Threshold: Minimum difference a person cannot detect EX: LOUD AT HOME – MOM YELLS “TURN DOWN A LIL” – YELLS AGAIN – KID SAYS I DID - Signal Detection Theory: Ability to detect psychological factors such as learning, motivation and psychological states - More than just your normal senses being applied - Sensory Adaption: (Sensitization vs Desensitization) Ex: Old lady can never tell how strong her perfume is or when it fades away so she keeps reloading The Eye: - Cornea: Transparent eye color/cover - Iris: Muscle; colored part of eye - Pupil: opening in iris – sensitive to light and emotion - CORNEA CONTROLS AMOUNT OF LIGHT ALLOWED IN! PUPIL ALLOWS IT IN! - Lens: Changes in thickness for focusing. Images are projected onto retina - Retina: The area of the inner surface that contains rods and cones - Rod: Effective in dark. Detect black and white. - Cones: Not effective in dark. Detect color. - Optic Nerve: Formed by axons of ganglion neurons. Conducts sensory input to brain (Occipital Lobe) - Visual Acuity: - Nearsighted: See near clear. - Farsighted: See far clear - Presbyopia: “Old man eyes” When eyes worse as you age Sound: - Sound waves require medium (air, water) - Create vibrations: A single cycle of expansion and compression is ONE cycle - Pitch: Determined by frequency in unit hertz (Hz) - Loudness: Corresponds to height (amplitude) of sound waves. Expressed in decibels (dB) - An 85 on decibel rating is dangerous!! The Ear: - Shaped and structured to capture sounds, vibrate in symphony with them and transmit auditory info to brain - Parts of Ear: - Outer Ear: Funnels sound waves to eardrum - Middle Ear: 3 little bones - Inner Ear: Cochlea (snail), basilar membrane and organ of Corti - Auditory Nerve: Where the sounds are transmitted to - Hearing: - Conductive Deafness: Affects older people. Damage to MIDDLE ear. Hearing aids help - Sensorineural Deafness: Damage to INNER ear. Caused by disease/loud sounds Smell: - Olfactory Nerve: Transmits information about odors to the brain Taste: - 4 Primary: Sweet, sour, salty and bitter - Food rejections are based on texture, taste and where it comes from Pain: - Usually sharpest where nerve endings are densely packed - Felt deep in body - No nerve endings for pain in brain - Prostaglandins: Facilitate transmission of the pain message to the brain and heighten circulation to the injured area, causing inflammation. Gate Theory of Pain: Nervous system can only process a limited amount of stimulation - Rubbing pain competes for neural attention - Closes “gate” on pain messages to brain Chapter 4: Consciousness Terms: - Selective Attention: Focus on particular stimulus. Cocktail Party Effect. CONSCIOUSNESS: A. Preconciousness: Not currently in awareness- but ready B. Unconciousness: Unavailable to awareness under most circumstances - Repression: Allow us to avoid feelings of guilt, shame, anxiety - Suppression: When people chose to stop thinking about unacceptable ideas or distractions C. Nonconciousness: Bodily processes that cannot be experienced through sensory awareness – EX: Hair growth - Circadian Rhythms: Cycle that is connected with 24 hour period of Earth’s rotation - Cycle of wakefulness and sleep Stages of Sleep: - (NREM): Non rapid eye movement sleep - 4 Stages: 1 is lightest and 4 is deepest (wavelength) - (REM): Rapid eye movement – report dreams Awake vs Asleep: - Waves/Frequency – amplitude - REM/NREM - Brain Activity/Dreaming Dreams: - Cognitive activity that occurs while sleeping - Most vivid during REM - Color or black and white -Pleasant dreams or nightmar
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