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Psychology Chapter 1.5-5 Exam Guide

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Pennsylvania State University
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Exam #1 (Chapters 1.5-5) Study Guide Chapter 1.5 1. Research conducted for the purpose of verifying previous experimental findings is called: Replication 2.AResearch method in which a representative group of people are questioned about their behaviors or attitudes is called: Asurvey 3. When researchers want to be sure that known subgroups of the population are represented proportionally in the research, a _____________ sample is used. Representative 4. The study quoted in the text by Loftus indicating the different estimates of number of headaches per week is an example of which limitation of survey research? Bias in the design of the questions 5.Amethod of scientific investigation that studies the relationships between variables is called: Correlational 6.As a person ages, his or her physical strength declines. The relationship between strength and age will show a ___________ coefficient of correlation. Negative 7. The major advantage of the experimental method is that it: Allows the researcher control of the conditions. 8. Why does the experimental research method use the experimental/control group set up? To provide a source of comparison. 9. If you add up all the scores and divide by the number of scores, the result is the: Mean 10. We, as researchers, must specify precisely what we mean by terms we use. This specific precision is known as: An operational definition 11.Athorough investigation of a suicide victim's past and state of mind is called a psychological postmortem. The research method he or she would use would be: Acase study 12.Apositive correlation indicates that the variables vary together in the: Same direction 13.Atelephone survey of voters of the 1936 presidential election was not a true random sample because: Only higher socioeconomic statusAmericans had telephones 14. The _____ is an imperfect measure of variability because it is influenced by extreme scores. Range 15. Who decides whether the benefits of a potential research study outweigh the possibility of harm to the subjects? An institutional ethics committee. 16. The interview has the advantage over the questionnaire because the interview is: More flexible 17.Anegative correlation indicates that the variables vary together in the: Opposite direction 18.Aresearch method which consists of manipulating some environmental event in order to observe the effects of the manipulation on the behavior of the subjects under controlled conditions is called a/an: Experiment 19.Aresearcher is interested in testing how cohabitation and martial stability are related. What type of research method should be used? Acorrelational study 20. Which of the following is a limitation of the experimental method? It is not always possible for the researcher to manipulate the variable of interest. 21. Why is it inappropriate to discuss casualties from a correlational study? Because of the lack of precise control over factors that may influence behavior. 22. Which of the research studies below is an example of research for the purpose of solving a problem? A.Aresearcher predicts that there is a relationship between coming to class on Friday and good grades. B.Aresearcher is interested in how coming to class on Friday could be related to good grades. C.Aresearcher conducts the same study at a new college to see if the results differ. D. None of the above. *Answer: None of the above* 23. It is difficult if not impossible to generalize from case studies because: Proper sampling is rarely if ever used. 24. If an experiment varies the loudness of music in a factory to observe its effect upon the rate of productivity, the dependent variable is the: Rate of productivity 25. Case study research has the advantage of: Using many different methods to gather the information 26. The median is the: Score beneath which 50 percent of the scores fall. 27. You have a "hunch" or an educated guess that vitamin C enhances IQ, and you intend to research it. Your "hunch" is called: Ahypothesis 28. An observer records frustration as the reason for a child's inactivity when the child was actually just thinking of what to do. This is an example of: Observer bias 29.A/an _______ group is a group of subjects who experience all the same conditions as do subjects in the experimental group except for the key factor the researcher is evaluating. Control 30. When scientists conclude that a research is statistically significant, they are merely stating, at a high level of confidence, that the difference is attributable to the: Experimental condition 31. Most of the problems with survey research can be overcome if the researchers: 1) Take care in their sample selection 2) Do not attempt to generalize beyond the population that the survey sample was selected 3) Place a considerable amount of thought into selection of survey questions. 32. Operational definitions refer to: A clear description of the concepts, in terms of the methods being used to measure them. 33.Aclinical psychologist notes that an unusually large number of obese people are depressed and anxious, and he offers an explanation that excess weight causes emotional disturbances and plans to conduct a research investigation into this matter. Research to test a hypothesis 34.Arepresentative sample assures researchers that: Subgroups are represented proportionally. Chapter 2 1. When a neuron is at rest, the membrane is said to be in a polarized state; this means that: The neuron is in a state of readiness, waiting to be activated. 2. Endorphins are: Neurotransmitters that are chemically similar to opiates. 3. Drugs that slow down or depress activity in the CNS are known as: Depressants 4. The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather then the other hemisphere is referred to in the text as: Lateralization of function. 5. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique used in studying the brain by: Placing electrodes outside the brain and thereby monitoring brain wave activity. 6. The autonomic nervous system regulates: Involuntary activities. 7. The event that initiates the release of transmitter substances from the terminal buttons of the axon is the: Action potential 8. The portion of the brain most closely associated with emotional expression is the: Limbic system 9.All neurons share four common structures: the cell body, dendrites, axon, and the: Terminal buttons 10. The occipital lobe consists primarily of the: Association cortex 11. The synaptic vesicles of the terminal buttons contain: Neurotransmitters 12. Ronnie is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around his cortex, Ronnie reports feeling a tingling sensation in his left hand. Where in Ronnie's brain has the surgeon stimulated? Right parietal lobe 13.Apatient whose hippocampus has been completely removed from both sides of his brain will be unable to: Remember the name of a new friend. 14. The all-or-none principle refers to the fact that: Aneuron transmits an impulse of the same strength each time it fires. 15. The fight or flight response is a direct result of the activation of the: Sympathetic nervous system. 16. When you touch a rough surface, the sensation is carried to the central nervous system by the ________ nerves. Afferent 17. In order for a substance to be classified as a neurotransmitter, it must meet certain criteria; these do not include: Causing an action potential when released into the synapse. 18. The wrinkles, convolutions and fissures in the cerebral cortex: Allow more nerve cells to be packed into the brain. 19. If a patient had severe damage to the frontal lobe, you might predict he or she might also have: Impaired decision-making and problem-solving abilities. 20. Some people who are lethargic and have little motivation may suffer from a condition of low thyroid secretion known as: Hypothyroidism 21. Which brain structure seems to be linked to the sleep cycles and possibly to dreaming? The reticular activating system 22. If you hit your thumb with a hammer, which nervous system initiates the message to your brain? The somatic nervous system 23.Agunshot wound to the back of the head would cause the victim to be permanently unable to maintain motor coordination. The part of the brain that would be damaged is the: Cerebellum 24. The gland in the endocrine system, located directly below the hypothalamus, that produces a number of hormones, many of which trigger other endocrine glands to release hormones, is the: Pituitary gland 25. For an action potential to occur: EPSPs must predominate to the point of bringing the cell to the threshold of hyperpolarization. 26. When an object is placed unseen in the right hand of a split brain patient, the patient will: Be able to describe it. 27. Broca's area of the brain can usually be found in the ____________ lobe of the brain. Left frontal 28. The hallucinogens are classified as such because of the changes they produce in sensory perceptions, thinking, and emotions of the individual user. Drugs in this category include: LSD and psilocybin 29. Damage to the occipital lobe may cause: Partial or complete blindness 30. Inhibitory neurotransmitters influence receiving neurons to: Not fire 31. If action potential follows the all-or-none principle, how is it possible for us to distinguish between different levels of stimulus intensity? The number of neurons affected changes. By frequency at which a single neuron fires. 32. Many neural axons are tightly wrapped with a fatty, which fiber known as: Myelin 33. Most neurons have only one axon, yet it is said that a single neuron can connect to many other neurons. How does this occur? It is true there is just one axon on most neurons but it generally divides into two or more branches and this allows it to connect to multiple other neurons. 34. Researchers are especially interested in endorphins because of their: Pain reducing qualities 35. Patients with damage to Wernicke's area have sustained damage to the _______ lobe of the cortex and will have trouble ___________________. Temporal; understanding speech 36. Noninvasive techniques for studying the brain have the advantage that: 1) They do not require surgery 2) They can be conducted on living organisms 37. Sally is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around her cortex she reports hearing a buzzing sound in her right ear. Where in Sally's brain is the surgeon most likely to be? Left temporal lobe 38.Aneuron which a negative charge but is not transmitting an impulse is said to be: At resting potential Chapter 3 1. Stimuli suggestive of the depth that involve simultaneous perception by both eyes are referred to as: Binocular cues 2.Another name for the sense of smell is the: Olfactory sense 3. In the human, the audible range of sound wave frequencies is approximately: 20-20,000 Hz 4. Rods and cones are: Photoreceptors 5. The minimum physical intensity of a stimulus that can be perceived by an observer 50% of the time is the: Absolute threshold 6. "Seeing" what we expect to see is referred to as: Perceptual set 7. Where is the sense of equilibrium localized? Inner ear 8. Visible light is described in terms of: Wavelengths 9. The function of the middle ear is to: Amplify the sound 10.Among mammals, _________ is/are perceived a full range of colors.: Only primates 11. The ability to distinguish sensations does not depend on differences between sense organs but rather: On the part of the brain activated by the sensory messages. 12. What factors influence which of the many physical events that are bombarding each of the sensory systems get transduced into neural information? 1) Sensory thresholds 2)Attention 3)Adaptation 13. In mathematical from Weber's law is stated l=kl, what does this mean in "English"? That the jnd is always a constant fraction of the original stimulus. 14.Aperson living near an industrial plant producing foul-smelling smoke not notice it after a while because of: Sensory adaptation 15. The sensory system that is slowest to adapt is: Pain 16. Signal detection theory describes two kinds of noise that could interfere with the perception of the sensory stimuli. They are: Internal activity and external environmental stimuli. 1
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