Exam #1 (Chapters 1.5-5)
1. Research conducted for the purpose of verifying previous experimental findings is called:
2.AResearch method in which a representative group of people are questioned about their behaviors or
attitudes is called:
3. When researchers want to be sure that known subgroups of the population are represented
proportionally in the research, a _____________ sample is used.
4. The study quoted in the text by Loftus indicating the different estimates of number of headaches per
week is an example of which limitation of survey research?
Bias in the design of the questions
5.Amethod of scientific investigation that studies the relationships between variables is called:
6.As a person ages, his or her physical strength declines. The relationship between strength and age
will show a ___________ coefficient of correlation.
7. The major advantage of the experimental method is that it:
Allows the researcher control of the conditions.
8. Why does the experimental research method use the experimental/control group set up?
To provide a source of comparison.
9. If you add up all the scores and divide by the number of scores, the result is the:
10. We, as researchers, must specify precisely what we mean by terms we use. This specific precision is
An operational definition
11.Athorough investigation of a suicide victim's past and state of mind is called a psychological
postmortem. The research method he or she would use would be:
Acase study 12.Apositive correlation indicates that the variables vary together in the:
13.Atelephone survey of voters of the 1936 presidential election was not a true random sample
Only higher socioeconomic statusAmericans had telephones
14. The _____ is an imperfect measure of variability because it is influenced by extreme scores.
15. Who decides whether the benefits of a potential research study outweigh the possibility of harm to
An institutional ethics committee.
16. The interview has the advantage over the questionnaire because the interview is:
17.Anegative correlation indicates that the variables vary together in the:
18.Aresearch method which consists of manipulating some environmental event in order to observe
the effects of the manipulation on the behavior of the subjects under controlled conditions is called
19.Aresearcher is interested in testing how cohabitation and martial stability are related. What type of
research method should be used?
20. Which of the following is a limitation of the experimental method?
It is not always possible for the researcher to manipulate the variable of interest.
21. Why is it inappropriate to discuss casualties from a correlational study?
Because of the lack of precise control over factors that may influence behavior.
22. Which of the research studies below is an example of research for the purpose of solving a
A.Aresearcher predicts that there is a relationship between coming to class on Friday and good
B.Aresearcher is interested in how coming to class on Friday could be related to good grades.
C.Aresearcher conducts the same study at a new college to see if the results differ.
D. None of the above.
*Answer: None of the above*
23. It is difficult if not impossible to generalize from case studies because: Proper sampling is rarely if ever used.
24. If an experiment varies the loudness of music in a factory to observe its effect upon the rate of
productivity, the dependent variable is the:
Rate of productivity
25. Case study research has the advantage of:
Using many different methods to gather the information
26. The median is the:
Score beneath which 50 percent of the scores fall.
27. You have a "hunch" or an educated guess that vitamin C enhances IQ, and you intend to research it.
Your "hunch" is called:
28. An observer records frustration as the reason for a child's inactivity when the child was actually just
thinking of what to do. This is an example of:
29.A/an _______ group is a group of subjects who experience all the same conditions as do subjects in
the experimental group except for the key factor the researcher is evaluating.
30. When scientists conclude that a research is statistically significant, they are merely stating, at a high
level of confidence, that the difference is attributable to the:
31. Most of the problems with survey research can be overcome if the researchers:
1) Take care in their sample selection
2) Do not attempt to generalize beyond the population that the survey sample was selected
3) Place a considerable amount of thought into selection of survey questions.
32. Operational definitions refer to:
A clear description of the concepts, in terms of the methods being used to measure them.
33.Aclinical psychologist notes that an unusually large number of obese people are depressed and
anxious, and he offers an explanation that excess weight causes emotional disturbances and plans to
conduct a research investigation into this matter.
Research to test a hypothesis
34.Arepresentative sample assures researchers that:
Subgroups are represented proportionally.
1. When a neuron is at rest, the membrane is said to be in a polarized state; this means that:
The neuron is in a state of readiness, waiting to be activated.
2. Endorphins are: Neurotransmitters that are chemically similar to opiates.
3. Drugs that slow down or depress activity in the CNS are known as:
4. The degree to which a particular function is controlled by one rather then the other hemisphere is
referred to in the text as:
Lateralization of function.
5. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique used in studying the brain by:
Placing electrodes outside the brain and thereby monitoring brain wave activity.
6. The autonomic nervous system regulates:
7. The event that initiates the release of transmitter substances from the terminal buttons of the axon is
8. The portion of the brain most closely associated with emotional expression is the:
9.All neurons share four common structures: the cell body, dendrites, axon, and the:
10. The occipital lobe consists primarily of the:
11. The synaptic vesicles of the terminal buttons contain:
12. Ronnie is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around his cortex, Ronnie reports
feeling a tingling sensation in his left hand. Where in Ronnie's brain has the surgeon stimulated?
Right parietal lobe
13.Apatient whose hippocampus has been completely removed from both sides of his brain will be
Remember the name of a new friend.
14. The all-or-none principle refers to the fact that:
Aneuron transmits an impulse of the same strength each time it fires.
15. The fight or flight response is a direct result of the activation of the:
Sympathetic nervous system.
16. When you touch a rough surface, the sensation is carried to the central nervous system by the
Afferent 17. In order for a substance to be classified as a neurotransmitter, it must meet certain criteria; these do
Causing an action potential when released into the synapse.
18. The wrinkles, convolutions and fissures in the cerebral cortex:
Allow more nerve cells to be packed into the brain.
19. If a patient had severe damage to the frontal lobe, you might predict he or she might also have:
Impaired decision-making and problem-solving abilities.
20. Some people who are lethargic and have little motivation may suffer from a condition of low
thyroid secretion known as:
21. Which brain structure seems to be linked to the sleep cycles and possibly to dreaming?
The reticular activating system
22. If you hit your thumb with a hammer, which nervous system initiates the message to your brain?
The somatic nervous system
23.Agunshot wound to the back of the head would cause the victim to be permanently unable to
maintain motor coordination. The part of the brain that would be damaged is the:
24. The gland in the endocrine system, located directly below the hypothalamus, that produces a
number of hormones, many of which trigger other endocrine glands to release hormones, is the:
25. For an action potential to occur:
EPSPs must predominate to the point of bringing the cell to the threshold of hyperpolarization.
26. When an object is placed unseen in the right hand of a split brain patient, the patient will:
Be able to describe it.
27. Broca's area of the brain can usually be found in the ____________ lobe of the brain.
28. The hallucinogens are classified as such because of the changes they produce in sensory
perceptions, thinking, and emotions of the individual user. Drugs in this category include:
LSD and psilocybin
29. Damage to the occipital lobe may cause:
Partial or complete blindness
30. Inhibitory neurotransmitters influence receiving neurons to:
31. If action potential follows the all-or-none principle, how is it possible for us to distinguish between
different levels of stimulus intensity? The number of neurons affected changes. By frequency at which a single neuron fires.
32. Many neural axons are tightly wrapped with a fatty, which fiber known as:
33. Most neurons have only one axon, yet it is said that a single neuron can connect to many other
neurons. How does this occur?
It is true there is just one axon on most neurons but it generally divides into two or more branches and
this allows it to connect to multiple other neurons.
34. Researchers are especially interested in endorphins because of their:
Pain reducing qualities
35. Patients with damage to Wernicke's area have sustained damage to the _______ lobe of the cortex
and will have trouble ___________________.
Temporal; understanding speech
36. Noninvasive techniques for studying the brain have the advantage that:
1) They do not require surgery
2) They can be conducted on living organisms
37. Sally is undergoing brain surgery. While the surgeon is probing around her cortex she reports
hearing a buzzing sound in her right ear. Where in Sally's brain is the surgeon most likely to be?
Left temporal lobe
38.Aneuron which a negative charge but is not transmitting an impulse is said to be:
At resting potential
1. Stimuli suggestive of the depth that involve simultaneous perception by both eyes are referred to as:
2.Another name for the sense of smell is the:
3. In the human, the audible range of sound wave frequencies is approximately:
4. Rods and cones are:
5. The minimum physical intensity of a stimulus that can be perceived by an observer 50% of the time
6. "Seeing" what we expect to see is referred to as:
7. Where is the sense of equilibrium localized? Inner ear
8. Visible light is described in terms of:
9. The function of the middle ear is to:
Amplify the sound
10.Among mammals, _________ is/are perceived a full range of colors.:
11. The ability to distinguish sensations does not depend on differences between sense organs but
On the part of the brain activated by the sensory messages.
12. What factors influence which of the many physical events that are bombarding each of the sensory
systems get transduced into neural information?
1) Sensory thresholds
13. In mathematical from Weber's law is stated l=kl, what does this mean in "English"?
That the jnd is always a constant fraction of the original stimulus.
14.Aperson living near an industrial plant producing foul-smelling smoke not notice it after a while
15. The sensory system that is slowest to adapt is:
16. Signal detection theory describes two kinds of noise that could interfere with the perception of the
sensory stimuli. They are:
Internal activity and external environmental stimuli.