Textbook Assigned Readings
Approximately 10 of the 40 m.c. questions will be based on the assigned readings from the textbook.
As a reminder, I suggest that you:
1. survey the chapter that we will be covering in lecture
2. actively process the information during lecture
3. actively review your notes as we discussed in class
4. focus on studying the assigned readings for the exam, using the SQ3R technique
Remember to look for relevant questions about the assigned textbook reading material in the Practice
Quizzes following each section and the Test Yourself sections that appear at the end of chapters. The
answers are found on pages AK-1 and AK-2 (Answer Key pages) following Appendix B.
Here are some questions to guide your study efforts:
● Chapter 7 – Cognition: Thinking, Intelligence, & Language
○ Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, pp. 266 & 267
■ What are the nine types of intelligence described in Gardner’s Multiple
○ Verbal/linguistic – writers & speakers
○ Musical – musicians
○ Logical/mathematical – scientists & engineers
○ Visual/spatial – pilots, astronauts, artists, & navigators
○ Movement – dancers & athletes
○ Interpersonal – psychologists & managers
○ Intrapersonal – people oriented careers
○ Naturalist – farmers, biologists, & botanists
○ Existentialist – philosophical thinkers
■ What are some of the criticisms of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences?
○ Not much scientific evidence
○ Some say the intelligences are just different abilities, and do not exactly fit
the criteria given to normal intelligence
○ IQ Tests & Cultural Bias, pp. 271– 273
■ How do IQ tests display cultural biases?
○ The people who make the tests may come from a different economic status
or cultural background than the people taking the test
○ Language barriers
■ What is a cultural bias?
○ The tendency of IQ tests to reflect, in language, dialect, and content, the
culture of the person or persons who designed the test
■ What is the Dove Counterbalance General Intelligence test and how is it flawed?
○ A test designed in an attempt to demonstrate that a significant
language/dialect barrier exists among children of different backgrounds
○ Flawed because people form different geographical areas have different
1 ■ How could a test become “culturally fair”?
○ Use questions that do not create a disadvantage for people whose culture
differs from that of the majority
○ Use many questions requiring nonverbal ability, such as rotating objects,
rather than items about verbal knowledge that might be culturally specific
■ In what ways are IQ tests useful?
○ Predicting academic success
○ Plays an important role in neuropsychology, when dealing with head
injuries, learning disabilities, etc. and tracking the progress of individuals
with such disorders, and in monitoring possible recovery
○ Intellectual Disability, pp. 276 & 277
■ How is intellectual disability defined?
○ The person’s IQ must fall below 70, or two standard deviations below the
mean on the normal curve
○ The person’s adaptive behavior (abilities that allow people to live
independently, communicate with others, grooming skills, work at a job) is
severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
○ Limitations must be present before the age of 18
■ What diagnosis method is used to classify whether a child has an intellectual
○ Based on IQ scores, and on the strengths and weaknesses of the person in
adaptive functioning and the onset of impairments in intellectual
functioning and adaptive behavior before 18 years old
■ What are the three most common biological causes of intellectual disability?
○ Down Syndrome
○ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
○ Fragile X Syndrome
○ Giftedness, pp. 277 & 278; one paragraph on p. 280, too
■ What is the definition of the term gifted?
○ People who fall on the upper end of the normal curve with an IQ above 130
■ What are some of the false beliefs about people who are gifted?
○ People who are geniuses when they’re young will lose it as they age
○ Gifted people are weird and socially awkward, physically weak, and more
susceptible to mental illness
■ Which of Terman’s participants displayed social and behavioral issues, and at what
stage in their life were these problems prominent?
○ Children with IQ’s of 180 and above, problems occurred during childhood
■ What were Freeman’s findings when studying gifted children who were “pushed”?
○ They grow up to be disappointed somewhat unhappy adults
○ Classic Studies: Terman’s “Termites”, pp. 279 & 280
■ What type of study was Terman’s experiment?
■ In what three ways were the successful adults different from the others?
○ They were more goal oriented
○ More persistent in pursuing goals
○ More self-confident than the less successful
■ What were the flaws of Terman’s study?
○ They participants were recommended, not randomly selected
2 ○ The original group consisted of almost entirely white, urban, and middle
○ Terman interfered in the lives of the children
■ What goals did Terman’s study accomplish?
○ Putting to rest the myths that existed about genius in the early part of the
■ Gifted children and adults are no more prone to mental
illnesses or odd behavior than any other group
■ They have their share of failures as well as successes
■ Genius is not the only indicator of success
● Chapter 9 – Motivation & Emotion
○ Personality and nAch: Carol Dweck’s Self-Theory of Motivation, pp. 347 & 348
■ According to Carol Dweck, the need for achievement is closely linked to what
○ Personality factors, including a person’s view of how self can affect the
understanding of how much a person’s actions can influence his or her
■ What is a locus of control?
○ The tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not
have control over events and consequences in their lives
■ What is the difference between an internal locus of control and an external locus of
○ People who assume that they have control over what happens in their lives
are considered to be internal, and those who feel that their lives are
controlled by powerful others, luck, or fate are considered to be external
■ Based on her research, what are Carol Dweck’s recommendations to pa