Approximately 10 of the 40 m.c. questions for new material will be based on the assigned readings from
As a reminder, I suggest that you:
1. survey the chapter that we will be covering in lecture
2. actively process the information during lecture
3. actively review your notes as we discussed in class
4. focus on studying the assigned readings for the exam, using the SQ3R technique
Remember to look for relevant questions about the assigned textbook reading material in the Practice
Quizzes following each section and the Test Yourself sections that appear at the end of chapters. The
answers are found on pages AK-1 and AK-2 (Answer Key pages) followingAppendix B.
Here are some questions to guide your study efforts:
Chapter 14 – Psychological Disorders
• Models of Abnormality, pp. 536 & 537
o What is the biological model?
Proposes that psychological disorders have a biological or medical cause
Explains disorders as caused by chemical imbalances, genetic problems, brain
damage and dysfunction, or some combination of these
o In what ways has the biological model biased assumptions made about curing disorders?
The language used (illness, diagnosis, mental patient, therapy) tends to bias the
assumptions of professionals who are not psychiatrists or medical doctors toward a
biological cause for these disorders, and think they can be cured
o What is the basic idea behind the psychodynamic model explaining disordered behavior?
Explains disordered behavior as the result of repressing one’s threatening thoughts,
memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind
o What is the basic idea behind the behaviorism model explaining disordered behavior?
Explains disordered behavior as being learned just like normal behavior
o What is the basic idea behind the cognitive model explaining disordered behavior?
Sees abnormal behavior as a result from illogical thinking patterns
o What is the basic idea behind the biopsychosocial perspective explaining disordered
Biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences interacting together causes
the various forms of disorder
• The Pros & Cons of Labels, pp. 539 & 540
o What are the advantages of using labels to explain disordered conditions?
Labels establish distinct diagnostic categories that all professionals recognize and
understand, and they help patients receive effective treatment
o What are the disadvantages of using labels to explain disordered conditions?
Labels are long lasting and powerful, affecting not only how other people see
mental patients but how patients seem themselves
• Causes of Anxiety Disorders, pp. 545 & 546
o How does the psychodynamic model explain anxiety?
1 Sees anxiety as a kind of danger signal that repressed urges or conflicts are
threatening to surface
o How do behaviorists explain anxiety?
Believe that anxious behavioral reactions are learned
o How do cognitive psychologists explain anxiety?
See anxiety disorders as the result of illogical, irrational thought processes
o What are the irrational thought patterns referred to as magnification, all-or-nothing
thinking, overgeneralization and minimization?
Magnification: the tendency to “make mountains out of mole hills” by interpreting
situations as being far more harmful, dangerous, and embarrassing than they are
All or nothing: person believes that his or her performance must be perfect or the
result will be a total failure
Overgeneralization: a single negative event is interpreted as a never-ending
pattern of defeat
Minimization: giving little or no emphasis to one’s successes or positive events
o What are some biological factors that contribute to anxiety?
Has been linked to an imbalance in several neurotransmitters in the nervous system
o What forms of anxiety disorder appear around the world?
Ataque de nervios “attack of nerves” – LatinAmerican Countries – the person may
have fits of crying, shout uncontrollably, experience sensations of heat, and become
very aggressive, either verbally or physically
Koro – China – involves fear that one’s genitals are shrinking
TKS – Japan – excessive fear and anxiety that one will do something in public that
is socially inappropriate or embarrassing (blushing, staring, body odor)
• Causes of Mood Disorders, pp. 548 & 549
o How do behaviorists explain mood disorders?
Link depression to learned helplessness
o How do social cognitive theorists explain mood disorders?
Point to distortions of thinking, such as blowing negative events out of proportion
and minimizing positive, good events
o What are some biological factors that contribute to mood disorders?
Explanations focus on the effects of brain chemicals such as serotonin,
norepinephrine, and dopamine (drugs used to treat depression affect these)
o What is seasonal affective disorder?
Amood disorder that is caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of light present
in the winter months
o What is the basic role of genes in explaining mood disorders?
Since more severe mood disorders come from inside oneself, they are thought to be
linked to genes; also seen as being inherited
• Causes of Schizophrenia, pp. 558-560
o What model seems to have the primary explanation for schizophrenia?
o What does research on schizophrenia across cultures indicate?
Culture doesn’t have much affect on the onset of schizophrenia; about 7 to 8 out of
1,000 will develop the disorder no matter what culture
2 o What do family, twin, and adoption studies indicate about schizophrenia?
Genes are a major means of transmitting schizophrenia
o What is the stress-vulnerability model, and how does it explain the onset of schizophrenia?
Assumes that persons with genetic “markers” for schizophrenia have a physical
vulnerability to the disorder but will not develop it unless they are exposed to
environmental or emotional stress at critical times in development (ex. Puberty)
• Causes of Personality Disorders, p. 562
o How do cognitive-behavioral theorists explain personality disorders?
Specific behavior can be learned over time through the processes of reinforcement,
shaping, and modeling
o What other factors play a role in explaining personality disorders?
Some evidence of genetic factors
Lower than normal levels of stress hormones (antisocial personality disorder)
Chapter 15 – Psychological Therapy
• Two Kinds of Therapy, pp. 574 & 575
o What is psychotherapy?
The kind of therapy that involves application of psychological principles
o What is biomedical therapy?
The kind of therapy that uses medical methods
o What are insight and action therapies?
Insight: therapies aimed at understanding one’s motives and actions
Action: therapy directed more at changing behavior than providing insights into the
reasons for that behavior
• Interpersonal Psychotherapy, pp. 577 & 578
o What disorder does interpersonal psychotherapy focus on?
o What is the basic idea behind IPT?
Insight therapy focusing on relationships of the individual with others and the
interplay between mood and the events of everyday life
o What types of therapy are IPT based on?
Combines aspects of humanistic and cognitive-behavioral therapies
• Gestalt Therapy, pp. 579 & 580
o What is the basic idea behind Gestalt therapy?
Based on humanistic ideas; people’s problems stem from hiding important parts of
their feelings from themselves (when thoughts don’t match society’s wants)
o How is Gestalt therapy different from person-centered therapy and psychoanalysis?
Different from person-centered: therapists are directive and confront patients about
what they have said, and doesn’t just rely thoughts but leads patients
Different from psychoanalysis: focuses on the denied past (instead of hidden past)
• Beck’s Cognitive Therapy, pp. 585 & 586
o What are the 5 “distortions of thinking” mentioned in this section?
Arbitrary inference (jumping to conclusions); Selective thinking;
Overgeneralization; Maximization/minimization; Personalization
o What is cognitive-behavioral therapy?
Focuses on the present rather than the past but also assumes that people interact
with the world with more than simple, automatic reactions to external stimuli
3 • Group Therapies: Not Just for the Shy, pp. 587-589
o What are the characteristics of family counseling/therapy?
All of the members of a family who are experiencing some type of problem are
seen by the therapist as a group
o What is the goal of family counseling/therapy?
To discover the unhealthy ways in which family members interact and
communicate with one another and change those ways to healthier, more
productive means of interaction
o Why have self-help groups been created?
Many people feel that a therapist who has never had their problem is unable to truly
understand the situation; and they may feel that someone who has experienced it
and beaten it is more capable of providing real help
o What are self-help groups?
Agroup of people who choose to meet who have problems similar to their own,
with no therapist in charge
o What are the advantages of group therapy?
Lower cost; exposure to the ways in which other people view and handle the same
problems; opportunity for both the therapist and the person to see how that person
interacts with others; social and emotional support from people who have the same
or similar situation; can help shy people with social phobia
o What are the disadvantages of group therapy?
Therapist is no longer the only person to whom secrets and fears are told; client ust
share the therapist’s time; people with sever disorders may not be able to tolerate
the group setting
o What is group therapy good for, and why might it not be effective?
Good for people who are unable to afford therapy; provides social and emotional