[PSYCH 100H] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (26 pages long)

71 views26 pages
7 Feb 2017
School
Department

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

PSU
PSYCH 100H
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Foundations for the Study of Psychology
I. Psychology
a. Defined as the science of behavior and the mind
i. Behavior the observable actions of a person or animal
ii. Mind an individual's sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams,
motives, emotions, and other subjective experiences
iii. Science all attempts to answer questions through the systematic collection
and logical analysis of objectively observed data
II. Three Fundamental Ideas for Psychology: A Historical Overview
a. The Idea of Physical Causation of Behavior
i. Until 18th century, the church maintained the idea of duality
1. Defined as the distinct but intimately conjoined entities of a material
body and immaterial soul
ii. Descartes' Version of Dualism: Focus on the Body
1. Regarded the body as an intricate, complex machine that generates its
own heat and is capable of moving, even without the influence of a soul
2. Other organisms that do not have souls act mechanically like humans
3. His views are popular today because they acknowledge the roles of
sense organs, nerves, and muscles in behavior without people's
religious beliefs or intuitive feelings
4. Problems
a. Philosophy stumbles on the question of how a nonmaterial
entity can have a material effect, or how the body can follow
natural law and yet be moved by a soul that does not
b. Foundation the theory sets strict limits, which few
psychologists would accept today, on what can and cannot be
understood scientifically
iii. Thomas Hobbes and the Philosophy of Materialism
1. Hobbes argued that spirit and soul is a meaningless concept and that
nothing exists but matter and energy
2. Every process that we make can be understood in terms of physical
processes in the body, especially the brain
iv. Nineteenth-Century Physiology: Learning About the Machine
1. The discovery of the brain and nervous system helped the field of
psychology significantly
2. Increased Understanding of Reflexes
a. Reflexology the idea that all human actions are initiated by
stimuli in the environment the stimulus causes a chain
reaction of signals in the nervous system that culminates in a
muscle movement that constitutes an action
3. The Concept of Localization of Function in the Brain
a. Specific parts of the brain serve specific functions in the
production of mental experience and behavior
b. The Idea That the Mind and Behavior Are Shaped by Experience
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
i. Empiricism human knowledge and thought derive ultimately from sensory
experience we are machines that learn
ii. The Empiricist Concept of Association by Contiguity England
1. Locke and other British empiricists argued that thoughts are not
products of free will, but reflections of a person's experiences in the
environment
2. The Law of Association by Contiguity if a person experiences two
environmental events at the same time, those two events will become
associated in the person's mind such that the thought of one event will
tend to elicit the thought of the other
3. The Nativist Response to Empiricism Germany
4. Nativism most basic forms of human knowledge and the basic
operating characteristics of the mind are native to the human mind
inborn and do not have to be acquired from experience
c. The Idea That the Machinery of Behavior and Mind Evolved Through Natural Selection
i. Darwin published The Origin of Species
ii. Natural Selection and the Analysis of the Functions of Behavior
1. Through natural selection, random changes occurs and these organisms
acquire tendencies to behave in ways that promote their survival and
reproduction
iii. Application of Darwin's Ideas to Psychology
1. Basic forms of human emotional expressions are inherited, as are those
of other animals all due to one's ability to communicate one's
emotions in order to aid in its survival
III. The Scope of Psychology
a. Varieties of Explanations in Psychology and Their Application to Sexual Jealousy
i. Level of Analysis the level or type of casual process that is studied
1. Neural brain
2. Physiological chemical functions
3. Genetic genes
4. Evolutionary natural selection
5. Learning experience
6. Cognitive knowledge or beliefs
7. Social other people
8. Cultural culture living in
9. Developmental age related changes
ii. Sexual jealousy the set of emotions and behaviors that result when a person
believes that his or her relationship with a sexual partner or potential sexual
partner is threatened by the patterner's involvement with another person
iii. Explanations That Focus on Biological Processes
1. Neural Explanations behavioral neuroscience
a. Jealousy was activating the left frontal cortex of the brain
2. Physiological Explanations biopsychology
a. Hormones act as adjusters of feelings, jealousy included
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 26 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class