Personality Psychology 238
Dr. Daniela Martin
12 February 2013
• Validity, Reliability, & Bias
i. Validity- test measures what it is supposed to measure. *accuracy
ii. Reliability- test yields the same reasons over time; EX. test - re-test development.
iii. Bias- error in testing, skewing results. EX. conformation bias, social desirability.
• Varieties of Measures; advantages & disadvantages
i. Self - report- a questionnaire/survey. *disadvantage: participant bias.
ii. Projective Test- reveals unconscious process. *disadvantage: interpretation may
iii. Observation: capturing natural behavior. *disadvantage: intrusive to the
• Freud’s Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, & Super Ego.
i. Defense Mechanisms: blocking or redirecting negative, hurtful, & painful
memories or situations to ease the mind into a comforting state. a. Displacement: redirection of built up feelings onto a substitute target.
b. Rationalization: justifying one’s failures with socially acceptable reasons.
c. Reaction Formation: changing thoughts into their opposites in consciousness.
d. Regression: moving back in maturity by returning to primitive levels of
e. Repression: blocking memories from consciousness.
f. Denial: blocking external events from awareness.
g. Projection: attributing thoughts and feelings onto another person.
ii. Psychosexual Stages of Development:
a. Oral Stage (0-1 year): stimulation satisfying mouth orientated fixation. EX.
sucking, biting, and breast- feeding
b. Anal Stage (1-3 years): child is fully aware they are a person and their own
right and wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside
world. EX. potty training, anal-retentive.
c. Phallic Stage (3-6 years): child is aware of sex differences.
- Oedipus complex: boy tries to possess mother and replace father; represses
his feelings and imitates masculine & dad-like behaviors. *Identification - Electra Complex: girl desires father, replaces the desire for a penis; represses
emotions and substitutes wishing for a penis by wishing for a baby, identifies
female gender role. *Penis Envy
d. Latency Stage (6-Adolescent years): libido (sexual desire) is hidden through
defense mechanisms. Child’s energy is channeled into developing skills and
knowledge. EX. school work, hobbies, friendships.
e. Genital Stage (Adolescent-Adult years): adolescent explores sexual
experimentation, relationships with others. EX. dating, settling down.
• Evaluation of Freudian Theory
i. Personality development: primarily focused on male development.
ii. Case studies vs. Empirical research: based on recollections, not actual
observations; theories are too difficult to test scientifically & future
predictions are too vague.
• Neo- Analysis Summary
i. Analysis: focus of sense of self, Ego functions; stimulus correlating physiological
effects with psychological differences in combination with other tests to arrive at
an understanding of defense mechanisms.
ii. Carl Jung: “The Iceberg Model” -in order of top to bottom- Ego, Collective
Unconscious, Preconscious (Atman), Super-