personality psychology test 1 outline.docx

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Dr.Daniela Martin

CoreyYoung Personality Psychology 238 Dr. Daniela Martin 12 February 2013 • Validity, Reliability, & Bias i. Validity- test measures what it is supposed to measure. *accuracy ii. Reliability- test yields the same reasons over time; EX. test - re-test development. *consistency iii. Bias- error in testing, skewing results. EX. conformation bias, social desirability. • Varieties of Measures; advantages & disadvantages i. Self - report- a questionnaire/survey. *disadvantage: participant bias. ii. Projective Test- reveals unconscious process. *disadvantage: interpretation may be subjective iii. Observation: capturing natural behavior. *disadvantage: intrusive to the environment. • Freud’s Structure of the Mind: Id, Ego, & Super Ego. i. Defense Mechanisms: blocking or redirecting negative, hurtful, & painful memories or situations to ease the mind into a comforting state. a. Displacement: redirection of built up feelings onto a substitute target. b. Rationalization: justifying one’s failures with socially acceptable reasons. c. Reaction Formation: changing thoughts into their opposites in consciousness. d. Regression: moving back in maturity by returning to primitive levels of behavior. e. Repression: blocking memories from consciousness. f. Denial: blocking external events from awareness. g. Projection: attributing thoughts and feelings onto another person. ii. Psychosexual Stages of Development: a. Oral Stage (0-1 year): stimulation satisfying mouth orientated fixation. EX. sucking, biting, and breast- feeding b. Anal Stage (1-3 years): child is fully aware they are a person and their own right and wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world. EX. potty training, anal-retentive. c. Phallic Stage (3-6 years): child is aware of sex differences. - Oedipus complex: boy tries to possess mother and replace father; represses his feelings and imitates masculine & dad-like behaviors. *Identification - Electra Complex: girl desires father, replaces the desire for a penis; represses emotions and substitutes wishing for a penis by wishing for a baby, identifies female gender role. *Penis Envy d. Latency Stage (6-Adolescent years): libido (sexual desire) is hidden through defense mechanisms. Child’s energy is channeled into developing skills and knowledge. EX. school work, hobbies, friendships. e. Genital Stage (Adolescent-Adult years): adolescent explores sexual experimentation, relationships with others. EX. dating, settling down. • Evaluation of Freudian Theory i. Personality development: primarily focused on male development. ii. Case studies vs. Empirical research: based on recollections, not actual observations; theories are too difficult to test scientifically & future predictions are too vague. • Neo- Analysis Summary i. Analysis: focus of sense of self, Ego functions; stimulus correlating physiological effects with psychological differences in combination with other tests to arrive at an understanding of defense mechanisms. ii. Carl Jung: “The Iceberg Model” -in order of top to bottom- Ego, Collective Unconscious, Preconscious (Atman), Super-
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