Mr. Andrew Scherff
29 March 2013
Test #2 Essay Responses
• Discuss the Cognitive Behavioral view of how a SubstanceAbuse Disorder starts
and components of a Cognitive Behavioral Treatment program.
i. ASubstanceAbuse Disorder, from a Cognitive Behavioral view, begins
with a person experiencing a euphoric feeling from the drug. The temporary
reduction of tension of these feelings increases the likelihood of the person using
the drug to relieve the tension. This behavior progresses from the user attempting
to self- medicate. The user develops the mentality that the drug diminishes stress
and expects that the drug will be rewarding, which increases the person’s
motivation to continue using. Thus, the person loses the desire to quit and falls
into a series of using and abusing the drug.
ii. Treating a person with a SubstanceAbuse Disorder with a Cognitive
Behavioral Therapy includes a behavioral self-control treatment program which
trains the person to regulate his or her usage. The person is taught to keep track
of his or her behavior by writing down all attributes associated with the usage.
The program requires the person to keep a personal journal and report the times,
locations, people, and emotions all surrounding the behavior. Thus, the therapist and client can review the behavior for patterns and apply coping strategies when
situations or events occur that make the person want to use again. These
strategies help the client with his or her problem solving skills to use other
methods to relieve stress by relaxation techniques and diminish the will to use
• Describe the bio-psycho-social model for how a sociopath develops. Describe how you
would treat it and two issues with the treatment ofAntisocial Personality Disorder.
i. The biological aspect to anAntisocial Personality Disorder demonstrates
deficient function in the frontal lobes and lower serotonin levels causing
impulsive and aggressive behavior. The psychological aspect shows
abnormalities in automatic responses with anxiety from responding to danger.
Thus, the person engages in reckless behavior to experience anxiety.Also, the
person shows difficulty in recognizing emotions of others because the person
cannot detect warning signs from situations and environments, and because the
person is likely to hold attitudes that unintentionally trivialize or offend others.
The social aspect contributes through modeling behavior and unintentional
encouragement. The person’s primary socialization could even intentionally
reward aggressive, reckless, or careless behaviors.All of these aspects influence
the development of not only the disorder, but borderline sociopath because the
behavior will worsen due to aggression, truancy from typical expectations, lack
of appropriate judgment, and failure to learn from experiences. ii. Issues with treating anAntisocial Personality Disorder arise because any
form of treatment is likely to be ineffective. Techniques of treatment do not
typically show improvement because the client does not find his or her behavior
as inappropriate and the client will be aggressive in defense.Also, few
individuals seek medical attention specifically for the disorder because most are
forced into therapy or treatment by family, law enforcement, or employers. I
would treat anAntisocial Personality Disorder by attempting to change the
patient’s mentality about his or her disorder. I would try to help the patient
understand how he or she creates his or her own problems and how the patient’s
distorted perceptions prevent the patient from seeing his or herself the way others
view the patient. My goal being to improve the patient’s relationship with his or
herself, the patient’s family, and the patient’s work/social environment. I would
teach the patient self-observing skills to recognize irresponsible or offensive
behavior so he or she would be more capable of identifying people’s emotions.
• Discuss two biological causes of Schizophrenia and the Cognitive Behavioral
Treatment for Schizophrenia.
i. Biological causes Schizophrenia are genetic by nature but are influenced
by the nurture. Brain abnormalities suggest that the neurotransmitter, dopamine,
fires too often in neurons, transmitting too many messages. Other causes are
from exposure to viruses before birth interrupting proper brain development of
the fetus. The effects of the virus could remain quiet until puberty and be
activated by changes in levels of hormones. Schizophrenia can only be passed on
through genetics but exposure to behaviors can be learned and develop over time. ii. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapeutic approach attempts to change how
the individual views and reacts to his or her hallucinatory experiences by guiding
the individual to interpret the experience more accurately. This goal is to make
the experiences less powerful and destructive. The steps to achieve this goal
include educating and challenging inadequate ideas and hallucinations; the
individual learns how to cope with sensations. This therapeutic approach is most
effective in combination of the practice and medication.
• Discuss the biological effects of heroin and its vicious cycle of addiction. *The question
is referring to how heroin affects your brain after you inject it into your body. For the
second part, discuss what the withdrawal symptoms are and why they are so desperately
avoided. Discuss how the drug (taken to initially relieve stress) causes additional
stressors (think family, job, housing, etc).
i. The effects of using heroin are referred to as a rush, bringing a feeling of
“ecstasy”, which is followed by several hours of a “high”, bringing feelings such
as relaxation and happiness. The biological effects are caused by the heroin
tricking the neurons in the person’s brain into thinking that he or she is receiving
great amounts of endorphins, a neurotransmitter that reduces emotional stress,
tension, and the sensation of pain. Heroin has other biological effects by
suppressing the central nervous system that can cause the user to begin to breathe
at a slower rate to the point where he or she reaches the point of respiratory
failure. ii. Dependence of heroin can develop only from a few hits of using. The user
becomes addicted quickly because of the desire to feel the initial rush and to
avoid the vicious withdrawal symptoms. The symptoms include, but are not
limited to, restlessness, anxiety, sweating,