Exam 1 (chapters 1-6 excluding 5).docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 281
Professor
Kisha Jones
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 Scientist-practitioner model—apply existing science to new problems, use current problems to direct new science Hugo Munsterberg—father of IO psychology Army Alpha/Beta Test—group intelligence test derived from Stanford-benit. Robert Yerkes Bruce Moore—First PhD in industrial Psych, first president of div 14 of APA Frederick Taylor—Scientific management: jobs scientifically studied need a match between worker abilities and job tasks, money is prime motivator, tools need to fit workers needs. Time and motion studies to analyze. More time efficient ways to do jobs. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth—used this to increase efficiency of many domains Scientific Management—“one best way to do things” dehumanizing, health issues, repetitive motions, no room for error, demotivating, redundancy, downsizing, less people needed. Elton Mayo—human engineering: vary workplace conditions to help/hinder performance (change of lighting), performance always improved The Hawthorne studies & the Hawthorne Effect—demand effect. Human Relations Movement—good relationships are the most important determinant of productivity. Social factors will override financial considerations. More responsive to peers values. Henry Murray—first US assessment center for the office of strategic services. Assess personality and ability. Simulations to test abilities to deal with stress/frustration. Civil Rights Act of 1964—banned discriminatory practices in employment Chapter 2 (Lecture slides only) Construct—psychological concept or characteristic being measured Operationalization (operational definition)—how the construct is measured or manipulated Experiment—random assignment to experimental conditions and manipulation of independent variables. Quasi-experiment—field studies without random assignment (use intact groups) Observational (correlational designs/descriptive approach)—neither random assignment nor manipulation, limits ability to make causal inferences
 Correlation—represents relationship between two variables Restriction of range—r can shrink or expand, affected by sample size Meta-analysis—methodology used to do quantitative literature reviews. Combine empirical findings to quantify relationship Reliability—consistency or stability test-retest—give one test, give again (problem to get people take test twice) equivalent forms—give test and second test measures same thing split-half—take test in two, compare halves Cronbach’s alpha—average of the item intercorrelations Inter-rater agreement—ratings from different assessors agree Validity—logically or factually sound Face—test appear to be measuring what it is supposed to Construct—measuring intended to measure Content—sampling from entire domain Criterion—can be used to justifiably predict what you want it to Chapter 3 KSAOs—knowledge (domain-specific facts and info), skills (practiced acts, procedural knowledge), abilities (capacity to engage in specific acts), other characteristics (personality, interests, experience) necessary to perform a job HR functions that job analysis results inform—recruitment, selection, performance management, training, compensation, job design/redesign Job Oriented—tasks required on job (what does employee do) Task Inventory—task statements accompanied by rating scales: importance/frequency/difficult/error/relationship Worker-Oriented—focuses on human characteristics needed to perform (what does worker need) Job Analysis—purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on important work and worker related aspects of a job. Identifies behaviors/criteria that are basis for hiring training paying etc. Functional Job Analysis—systematic method for describing jobs in a standardized method. SMEs—Subject Matter Experts: in depth knowledge of specific job under analysis, skills, abilities. Linkage Analysis—task and worker oriented Critical Incidents—incidents of especially good/poor performance PAQ—Position Analysis Questionnaire, worker oriented approach. Assessed all jobs on common set of behaviors judging the relevance for target job. Information Input, Mental Processes, Work output, Job Context, Relationships, Other (Dictionary of Occupational Titles) DOT vs. (Occupational Information Network) O*NET—DOT too big, expensive and time consuming to update, focused on tasks difficult to compare jobs. ONET 6 dimensions—Worker Char, Worker Req, Experience Req, Occupational Req, Occupation Specific Req, Occupation characteristics Job description—written statement of duties, tasks, elements for position Specification—personal qualifications evaluation—determining relative value of jobs to determine compensation (point system and compensable factors) Comparable worth (perfect vs. imperfect wage equity)—jobs of comparable value to an organization should be compensated equally. Competency Modeling vs Job Analysis—identify competencies apply to all employees, popular appeal Chapter 4 Performance
Criteria—actions or behaviors relevant to the organizations goals Criterion—evaluative standard that can be used to measure a person’s performance Ultimate criterion—includes all job performance aspects that define success on the job. Complex never completely accessible. Actual criterion—best representation of the ultimate criterion and what we use in reality Actual criteria—measurement Conceptual criteria—what we are trying to measure Criterion relevance—overlap of conceptual and actual Deficiency—actual criterion has missed all conceptual. TOO MUCH C, A DEFECIT Contamination—unrelated to conceptual. A NOT RELATED Objective criteria—HARD metrics, sales productivity callbacks time quality subjective criteria—SOFT supervisor coworker subordinate ratings Campbell’s model of job performance—8 dimensions (job specific task proficiency, non job specific task proficiency, written and oral communication, demonstrating effort, maintaining personal discipline, facilitating team and peer perf, supervision/leadership, management/administration) Borman & Motowidlo’s model of job performance—task performance (intelligence) and contextual performance (personality) Organizational Citizenship Behavior—beyond task performance (contextual), three facets: Conscientious Initiative, Organizational Support, Personal Support Counterproductive Work Behavior—deviant behavior (absenteeism, theft, sexual harassment, verbal abuse, sabotage, etc). Sackett proposed hierarchial model with general CWB factor: interpersonally or organizationally directed deviance. (emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness) Dynamic criteria—performance changes over time Chapter 6 Testing formats—systematic procedure for observing behavior and describing it with aid of numerical scales or fixed categories Speed—time limit, easier items Power—sufficie
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