Scientist-practitioner model—apply existing science to new problems, use
current problems to direct new science
Hugo Munsterberg—father of IO psychology
Army Alpha/Beta Test—group intelligence test derived from Stanford-benit.
Bruce Moore—First PhD in industrial Psych, first president of div 14 of APA
Frederick Taylor—Scientific management: jobs scientifically studied need a match
between worker abilities and job tasks, money is prime motivator, tools need to
fit workers needs. Time and motion studies to analyze. More time efficient ways
to do jobs.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth—used this to increase efficiency of many domains
Scientific Management—“one best way to do things” dehumanizing, health
issues, repetitive motions, no room for error, demotivating, redundancy,
downsizing, less people needed.
Elton Mayo—human engineering: vary workplace conditions to help/hinder
performance (change of lighting), performance always improved
The Hawthorne studies & the Hawthorne Effect—demand effect.
Human Relations Movement—good relationships are the most important
determinant of productivity. Social factors will override financial considerations.
More responsive to peers values.
Henry Murray—first US assessment center for the office of strategic services.
Assess personality and ability. Simulations to test abilities to deal with
Civil Rights Act of 1964—banned discriminatory practices in employment
Chapter 2 (Lecture slides only)
Construct—psychological concept or characteristic being measured
Operationalization (operational definition)—how the construct is measured or
manipulated Experiment—random assignment to experimental conditions and manipulation
of independent variables.
Quasi-experiment—field studies without random assignment (use intact groups)
Observational (correlational designs/descriptive approach)—neither random
assignment nor manipulation, limits ability to make causal inferences
Correlation—represents relationship between two variables
Restriction of range—r can shrink or expand, affected by sample size
Meta-analysis—methodology used to do quantitative literature reviews. Combine
empirical findings to quantify relationship
Reliability—consistency or stability
test-retest—give one test, give again (problem to get people take test twice)
equivalent forms—give test and second test measures same thing
split-half—take test in two, compare halves
Cronbach’s alpha—average of the item intercorrelations
Inter-rater agreement—ratings from different assessors agree
Validity—logically or factually sound
Face—test appear to be measuring what it is supposed to
Construct—measuring intended to measure
Content—sampling from entire domain
Criterion—can be used to justifiably predict what you want it to
KSAOs—knowledge (domain-specific facts and info), skills (practiced acts,
procedural knowledge), abilities (capacity to engage in specific acts), other
characteristics (personality, interests, experience) necessary to perform a job HR functions that job analysis results inform—recruitment, selection,
performance management, training, compensation, job design/redesign
Job Oriented—tasks required on job (what does employee do)
Task Inventory—task statements accompanied by rating scales:
Worker-Oriented—focuses on human characteristics needed to perform (what
does worker need)
Job Analysis—purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on
important work and worker related aspects of a job. Identifies behaviors/criteria
that are basis for hiring training paying etc.
Functional Job Analysis—systematic method for describing jobs in a standardized
SMEs—Subject Matter Experts: in depth knowledge of specific job under analysis,
Linkage Analysis—task and worker oriented
Critical Incidents—incidents of especially good/poor performance
PAQ—Position Analysis Questionnaire, worker oriented approach. Assessed all
jobs on common set of behaviors judging the relevance for target job.
Information Input, Mental Processes, Work output, Job Context, Relationships,
(Dictionary of Occupational Titles) DOT vs. (Occupational Information Network)
O*NET—DOT too big, expensive and time consuming to update, focused on tasks
difficult to compare jobs. ONET 6 dimensions—Worker Char, Worker Req,
Experience Req, Occupational Req, Occupation Specific Req, Occupation
Job description—written statement of duties, tasks, elements for position
evaluation—determining relative value of jobs to determine compensation (point
system and compensable factors)
Comparable worth (perfect vs. imperfect wage equity)—jobs of comparable value to an organization should be compensated equally.
Competency Modeling vs Job Analysis—identify competencies apply to all
employees, popular appeal
Criteria—actions or behaviors relevant to the organizations goals
Criterion—evaluative standard that can be used to measure a person’s
Ultimate criterion—includes all job performance aspects that define success on
the job. Complex never completely accessible.
Actual criterion—best representation of the ultimate criterion and what we use
Conceptual criteria—what we are trying to measure
Criterion relevance—overlap of conceptual and actual
Deficiency—actual criterion has missed all conceptual. TOO MUCH C, A DEFECIT
Contamination—unrelated to conceptual. A NOT RELATED
Objective criteria—HARD metrics, sales productivity callbacks time quality
subjective criteria—SOFT supervisor coworker subordinate ratings
Campbell’s model of job performance—8 dimensions (job specific task
proficiency, non job specific task proficiency, written and oral communication,
demonstrating effort, maintaining personal discipline, facilitating team and peer
perf, supervision/leadership, management/administration)
Borman & Motowidlo’s model of job performance—task performance
(intelligence) and contextual performance (personality)
Organizational Citizenship Behavior—beyond task performance (contextual),
three facets: Conscientious Initiative, Organizational Support, Personal Support
Counterproductive Work Behavior—deviant behavior (absenteeism, theft, sexual harassment, verbal abuse, sabotage, etc). Sackett proposed hierarchial model
with general CWB factor: interpersonally or organizationally directed deviance.
(emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness)
Dynamic criteria—performance changes over time
Testing formats—systematic procedure for observing behavior and describing it
with aid of numerical scales or fixed categories
Speed—time limit, easier items