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SOC EXAM #3.docx

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SOC 001
John Fulton

Chapter 8 Ascribed status  Individuals are placed, generally at birth, in a status – sex, race, ethnicity, age, and so on – that they cannot escape. Achieved status  Some statuses are achieved by individuals.  Achieved statuses in modern Western society might include being a spouse, a sociology major, a college graduate, a chamber of commerce mem ber, a lawyer, or a convicted mass murder.  These are all positions in the social structure that individuals achieve for themselves (through, as in case of the convicted mass murderer, not always on purpose). Formal organization/bureaucracies  Formal organizations come into being when groups of people band together to achieve a specific goal (for example, to make money for stockholders or to provide a specific service to the community) and formalize their relationships with one another.  One of the most prevalent types of formal organizations is the bureaucracy.  The bureaucracy, according to Weber, is one of the more important manifestations of the trend toward the rationalization of life. Group  One or more individuals with whom we share some sense of identity or common goals and with whom we interact within a specific social structure. Primary Groups  Cooley was particularly interested in how humans become socialized – that is, how they are taught to be functioning members of social groups.  Cooley believed that the most important kinds of socialization took place in primary groups like the family and friendship groups.  In such primary groups, people learn the rules of social life and cooperation. Secondary Groups  Sociology class is a secondary group  Secondary relationships tend to be means-to-an-end relationships.  What is important is your status, not your personal characteristics. Master Status  Gender can be a master status. Ex. Students viewing a female professor rather than just a professor, they are treating the gender as a master status.  In their minds, gender affects expectations about how she oughts to and will play her role and how they ought to and will respond.  An individual’s race or ethnicity can also be a filter through which other statuses are perceived. Example: “an African- American doctor”. You can assume that racial and ethnic statuses influence people’s perceptions of occupational roles Role  The sum total of expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status. Role Conflict  Not only are some combinations of statuses perceived as inconsistent, but the actual demands of their roles can clash. Status  A social status is simply a position that a person occupies in a social structure.  In modern Western societies, there is a wide variety of social statuses.  These include family statuses, occupational statuses, social class statuses. CHAPTER 9 Action Habitualized  The habitualization would come as no surprise to a sociological observer.  In their analysis of human interaction, sociologists Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann explained the transformation of behavior into routine. Institutionalized  An institution is an accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to important societal needs. Attributes of Institutions Inherently conservative  CHAPTER 10 Agents of Socialization  Socialization is the process by which people acquire cultural competency and through which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structures.  The self evolves continually as it interacts with a variety of agents of socialization, including the family, schools, peers, and the workplace. Anna and Isabelle Compared Cooley-Looking Glass selves  Cooley emphasized that the social self arises through interaction with others.  According to Cooley, based on our perception of how others see u s, we develop our reflected or looking-glass selves. (A looking glass is a mirror) The Social Self  Cooley’s idea of the so
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