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SOC 001

 Typical college educated women lost more than $1 million in lifetime earnings and forgone retirement when she opted out  30 % of women who opt out and wanted to go back to work could not get a job  Values stretch o A 2011 study found that 65% of the fathers they interviewed felt that mothers and fathers should provide equal amounts of caregiving for their children o 2010 Pew Poll 72% of both women and men between 18 and 29 agreed that the best marriage is one in which husband and wife both work and both take care of the house o 70% of children live in households where every adult works o No major federal programs in the last 20 years do deal with this  Divorce o Estimates are about 50% of marriages will end in divorce o Half of divorced people remarry within the first three years after the divorce o Divorce is a rejection of a specific partner, not of marriage o 80% of people who divorce end up remarrying (most within 5 years) o Who is most likely to remarry?  Men (marry sooner after a divorce and generally someone younger)  More education and resources, more likely to remarry  Women  More education and resources, less likely to remarry  Exception is women with high employment status who divorce when they are older  Exception is women with high employment status who divorce when they are older  Being a parent lowers chances of remarriage  More for women than men  As age increases chances of remarriage decreases  More recent data shows that remarriage is associated with greater chance of divorce o Divorce  Old adversary system  No fault divorce  Migratory divorce  Divorce by mail (summary dissolution)  (CA – married less than 2 years; no kids; agree upon property)  2013-national survey of family growth o Women between the ages of 15 and 44 (unmarried) o 48% were cohabiting o Most likely to cohabit if:  Dropped out of high school  Latina  Children of divorce o Greater emotional conflict o Lower academic achievement o Lower self concepts o Have less trust in or commitment to their own romantic relationships o Poor mental health in childhood and early adulthood o Little interaction with father  About 17% of dads have sole custody  Religion o A system of beliefs and practices o By means of which a group of people o Struggle with the ultimate problem of human life (death)  Basic functions of religion (Durkheim) o Functions as a form of social cement o Provides emotional support o Reinforces norms of societies o Helps people through major life crises  Types of religious organizations o Ecclesia – claims membership of almost everyone in a society o Denomination- one or 2 religious organizations that claim the allegiance of a substantial part of the population (Catholic and Protestant) o Sect- formally organized religious group that has split from a denomination  Get into religion through conversion, not born into the religion o Cult – loosely organized and short lived  Often has unusual requirements for members  Oneida community o Founder: John Humphrey Noyes  Born in 1811 in Vermont  Went to Yale – got a license to preach, lost it when he declared he was without sin  Perfectionism – given the right environment, people could lead sinless life  Converted family first, then others in the area  1844 adopted economic communism  1846 shares spouses  Moved to Oneida creek new york (1847)  Did so because Noyes was indicted on grounds of adultery (had sex with a women to cure her)  After first year built mansion house  All members under one roof  Group oriented  Had to solve the problem of primary group living at secondary group size  Emphasized “we” over “I”  Decision making and social control  Economic communism  Had rich members who gave belongings when they joined  Sewell Newhouse  Silverware – Oneida is known for making silverware  Complex marriage  Free love – all men loved all women and all women loved all men  Practiced coitus reservatus except if female was past menopause child was desired  Eugenics (planned having of children)  Didn’t allow for kids for the first 20 years  Certain members could have kids  Had to apply  Fathers were usually much older than mothers  Noyes had 10 kids (had sex with about 200 women)  Ending  Lasted for 50 years  Reasons for ending o A lot of external pressure because of sexual practices o Noyes was gone a lot  Was a charismatic leader so that had a huge effect o Another minister joined (John Towner) so the community split into two groups  Education o Formal or informal transmission of knowledge or skills o Schooling – formal instruction in the classroom (elementary, middle, high school, college…) o Basic functions of schools  Instruction (teach how to read, etc.)  Socialization (how to get along with others; manners, etc.)  Custody and control – keep kids busy during the day  Certification – get a degree  Selection – pick people for occupations (doctor, lawyer) o Conflict  Education system used by elites to maintain social positions  Teach people that inequality is justified  Tracking (assign kids to classes based on ability)  If you don’t do well it is always your own fault  Taught American values  A sanitized view of the history of the US o Cultural Capital  Social assets such as familiarity and identification with elite culture and knowledge of manners, dress, etc. o Human capital  Investing in yourself (a college education) o Social capital  Norms that promotes cooperation between two or more individuals  Norm of reciprocity between two friends
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