Intro to Sociology Session 1:00-2:15pm
Mrs. Vippy Yee
4 December 2013
Assessment #2 Chapters 5-8
Chapter 5: Leadership
• Sociological Leader- people who influence others’behaviors, opinions, and attitudes.
i. Instrumental Leaders: keeps group on track to meet goals.
ii. Expressive Leaders: tried to motivate group to achieve goals.
iii. Leadership styles change as situations change.
• Authoritarian: gives instructions with little to no information.
• Democratic: tries to gain a group consensus.
• Laissez-Faire: hands off leader, lets the group lead itself.
• Conformative Studies
i. Asch Study: a line comparison test experimenting on conformity under pressure.
ii. Milgram Study: authority test experimenting conformity in power of a situation.
Chapter 6: Deviance in Society • Deviance is violation of societal norms. What is deviant to some may not be deviant to
others. *Not the act, but the reaction.
i. Norms make societal life possible by making behavior predictable and controlled.
• Stigma- Ervin Goffman, a blemich on one’s identity a violation of norms of appearance
• Explanations of Deviance:
i. Sociobiology- looks for answers inside individuals, like personality disorders.
ii. Psychologist: focuses on conditions within individuals, like personality disorders.
iii. Sociologist: uses environmental factors to explain individuals; answer is not
within the individual, but within what the individual was exposed to in society.
• Symbolic Interaction
i. Control Theory- Travis Hirschi says we all want to commit deviant acts but we
don’t because of our inner and outer controls.
ii. Labeling Theory: Howard Becker says labels propel us into deviance or can divert
us way from it.
iii. Five was to neutralize/reject labels
• Denial of responsibilities
• Denial of injury
• Denial of victim • Condemnation of the condemners
• Appeal to higher loyalties
Chapter 7: Global Stratification
• Social Stratification: a system in which groups of people are divided into layers
according to relative power, property, & prestige. *Stratified by categories and social
i. Slavery- causes and conditions varied around the world.
ii. Caste- boundaries are rigid. *Hard to change current situation.
iii. Class- boundaries are fluid. *One can easily move from one class to another
depending on situations and circumstances.
• Social Class: a large group of people who rank closely to one another in wealth, power,
and prestige, where wealth is calculated by a person’s assets, and prestige is best
determined by education.
• Functionalist Perspe