SOC 001 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Likey, Ascribed Status, Intercultural Competence

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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 5 (Methods I)
The Vocabulary of Science
-Concept: is a label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes
Ex: when you look outside and see apartment buildings, trees, street lamps, etc.
Things that are not easily pictured: love, intelligence, speed, racism
-They are real in the sense that they exist and have tangible (empirical) effects in
life (that is, they can make a difference in what happens to people), even though
none can actually be observed
-Constructs: word used to describe things that exist analytically but not directly
observable
-Variable: a thing of interest in a particular piece of research; some sociologists define
it as “a logical grouping of attributes”
How is a concept related to a variable?
-The first step in doing scientific research involves picking the concepts or
constructs that interest us, we call these concepts— variables
2 Characteristics:
-A variable is something that is thought to influence or to be influenced by another
thing
-The idea of variation or difference: A variable is a thing that has varying attributes
Attributes: a characteristic or a quality that describes a thing. (EX: attribute of
gender= male and female)
-Independent Variable: a variable that is believed to influence another variable
A variable influences another thing is called a cause
-Remember: INCA— The INdependent variable is the CAuse
-Dependent Variable: a variable that is thought to be influenced by the independent
variable; the dependent variable depends on the independent variable
When a variable is influenced by another thing it is called an effect
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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
-Direction of relationship:
Positive: variables that vary in the same direction (+ + or - -)
Negative: variables that vary in opposite directions (+ - or - +)
-Hypothesis: once we identify the variables of interest, then we posit a relationship
between them that can be either true or false
Variable X influences Variable Y
-Shorthand Version: Social classes affects voting behavior
-Longhand Version: Differences in social classes are related to differences in
voting behavior
-Questions and Answers
5.1
-Identify the variables in each assertion:
Martial status is thought to influence a person’s happiness
-Identify the Attributes
Martial status: never married, married, separated, divorced, widowed, other
Happiness: extremely happy, somewhat happy, somewhat unhappy, extremely
unhappy
Table 5.3 and 5.10 Answers:
-a) Yes, men do make more money
than females in low paying jobs. It is
false tho, there is still a big difference
between men and women earnings in
high paying jobs
-b) False, more women have high
paying jobs as compared to low
paying jobs
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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide
Chapter 6 (Methods II)
-Observational Research: a particular research technique in which the researchers
directly observes the behavior of individuals in their social environments, not in a lab
referred to as field research: because the normal social world is the field in which
research is conducted
Different Stages:
-Complete Participant— goes “undercover” and does not tell the people that they
are being observed
-Participant Observer— admits to being a researched so that people know they
are being studied
-Complete Observer— views things from a distance (like behind a tree); generally
unknown to the people he/she is observing
Weaknesses:
-Relatively small groups can be observed at once
-Most labor-intensive kind of research
-The fact that the researcher participation in the field can influence subjects and
findings is known as the Hawthorne Effect.
-Survey: is a series of questions asked of a number of people
Two methods of administering surveys:
-Interviews— as questions orally, face-to-face, or over the phone
-Self-Administered— give people question on a piece of paper
Strengths of Surveys:
-Suited to obtain information from a large number of people
-Appropriate for discovering basic “demographic information” (such as age,
gender, income, education, and religious affiliation)
-Allows researchers to obtain information about things that cannot be observed,
such as attitude
Weaknesses of Surveys:
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Document Summary

Concept: is a label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes: ex: when you look outside and see apartment buildings, trees, street lamps, etc, things that are not easily pictured: love, intelligence, speed, racism. They are real in the sense that they exist and have tangible (empirical) effects in life (that is, they can make a difference in what happens to people), even though none can actually be observed. Constructs: word used to describe things that exist analytically but not directly observable. The rst step in doing scienti c research involves picking the concepts or constructs that interest us, we call these concepts variables: 2 characteristics: thing. A variable is something that is thought to in uence or to be in uenced by another. The idea of variation or difference: a variable is a thing that has varying attributes: attributes: a characteristic or a quality that describes a thing. (ex: attribute of gender= male and female)

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