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Sociology 110 (Exam 3).docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 110
Professor
Stacy Silver

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Sociology 110 (UNIT 3) 2/19/13
UNIT 4
The Origin of Gender: Nature and Nurture
Point #1:
There are multiple perspectives on where gender comes from
The Origins of Gender
Biology/Biosocial
Evolutionary
Psychology
Culture
Gender
Sociology 110 (Unit3) I dont know if on exam 2/21/13
Biology/Biosocial
Androgens when in utero:
Create males
May Shape brain organization
May affect aggression
Current/Cyclical Hormone Levels:
Testosterone/Androgens
Estrogen + Oxytocin
Pregnancy, lactation, birth
The Biological Perspective on Gender
“The theory that our gender identity and behavior are based in part on men’s and women’s innate biological
differences.
Differences only “on average”
Bio influence shaped by environment
Culture can try to control biology
Evolutionary Psychology
The goal of evolution is survival and reproduction
Pass down you genes
Humans evolved in groups, to be interdependent
Traits and preferences that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce were passed across generations
through natural selection. They are in us today
Sociology 110 (Unit3) I dont know if on exam 2/21/13
Female Goals:
Get mate with most resources and get him to commit to her baby.
Prefer mate with resources who will share them
Attract and compete for such males
Concern with emotional infidelity of mate
Male Goals:
1. Mate as often as possible
2. Invest resources only in a baby you now is yours
Drive to accumulate resources so will be chosen by females
Concern with sexual infidelity of mate
Survival of the Prettiest
“Beauty”= Biological resources
Lots of shiny hair
Clear skin
Many strong, white teeth
Firm skin, good muscle tone
Male height and strength
Female youth
Female small waist, large hips
Biology and Evolutionary Psychology re like our hard drive?
Basic program for operating
Programs shared by everyone
Storage of oldest information

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Description
Sociology 110 (UNIT 3) 2/19/13 UNIT 4 The Origin of Gender: Nature and Nurture Point #1:     There are multiple perspectives on where gender comes from                            The Origins of Gender       Biology/Biosocial                   Evolutionary  Gender           Psychology                                                                       Culture Sociology 110 (Unit3) I don’t know if on exam 2/21/13 Biology/Biosocial Androgens when in utero: Create males May Shape brain organization May affect aggression Current/Cyclical Hormone Levels: Testosterone/Androgens Estrogen + Oxytocin Pregnancy, lactation, birth The Biological Perspective on Gender “The theory that our gender identity and behavior are based in part on men’s and women’s innate biological  differences.” Differences only “on average” Bio influence shaped by environment Culture can try to control biology Evolutionary Psychology The goal of evolution is survival and reproduction Pass down you genes Humans evolved in groups, to be interdependent Traits and preferences that helped our ancestors survive and reproduce were passed across generations  through natural selection. They are in us today Sociology 110 (Unit3) I don’t know if on exam 2/21/13 Female Goals: Get mate with most resources and get him to commit to her baby. Prefer mate with resources who will share them Attract and compete for such males Concern with emotional infidelity of mate Male Goals: 1. Mate as often as possible 2. Invest resources only in a baby you now is yours Drive to accumulate resources so will be chosen by females Concern with sexual infidelity of mate                       Survival of the Prettiest         “Beauty”= Biological resources Lots of shiny hair Clear skin Many strong, white teeth Firm skin, good muscle tone Male height and strength Female youth Female small waist, large hips Biology and Evolutionary Psychology re like our hard drive? Basic program for operating Programs shared by everyone Storage of oldest information Sociology 110 2/28/13 Culture Sociology 110 2/28/13 3 jobs of Culture 1. Defines gender expectations: Social construction 2. Teach gender expectations: Socialization 3. Enforce gender expectations: Social control Social Construction: “Cultures decide what is “right” or “true” and they live by these beliefs.” Racism: “The belief that members of one race group share certain attributes which make that group as a while  inferior or superior to members of other groups.” “Things defined as real are real in their consequences.”                                      (W.I. Thomas) Culturally accepted (the “norm”) Internalized by individuals Reinforced by actions of individuals and groups Those who disregard the belief are punished Sociology 110 2/28/13 Aspects of Culture Reinforce the Shared Beliefs Laws Religious teachings Socialization in the family Public opinion and behavior Peers Socially constructed beliefs change over time Socially Constructed Ideas: Are created by culture Are reinforced by the culture Are real in their consequences Change over time Change across cultures Social Construction of Gender ­The idea of a 2 gender system and the specific meanings of being a male or female are defined and  created by the culture. ­The beliefs are taught to each generation Sociology 110 2/28/13 1848­Married women retain rights to own property 1920­Rights to vote 1964­Job discrimination by sex illegal 1972­Equal athletics (Title 9) 1996­First female sec. of state 2013­45% of attorneys, 3 of 9 supreme court justices, 98 in House of Senate Culture Belief                           Consequences 1. Racism                                Segregation, Violence, Death 2. Diversity/Equality                 Obama 3. Women Fragile                     No Voting Rights 4. Equality/Diversity                 Women in Political Power ­176,000 stay at home dads ­Increase in men’s housework and child care Sociology 110 3/12/13 Socialization The process by which we learn the expectations of our culture or groups so we can function successfully in  it. Gender Socialization Process of learning our cultures gender expectations so we can function successfully in it. Socialization Process: 1. Observation 2. Imitation (good or bad) 3. Instruction 4. Rewards and punishments 5. Internalization 6. Socialize others Gender Identity What we feel ourselves to be, independent of our physical body Early in childhood Socialization? Family? Biology?  Gender Identity Gender Socialization by  Adults Sociology 110 3/12/13 Example: David Reimer 1965­2004 Parents: Want their kids playing with gender based today and gender oriented colors Media: Little girls dancing sexually Uncovered Too sexual Good dancing Age Screen Time: Kids 
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