NUR 2462C Chapter 1: Test 1 -Threats to PainRestSleep Module

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Published on 8 Jun 2020
NUR2731C/PAIN/REST/SLEEP 1 Fall, 2016
Acute Pain: Sudden from trauma, may evolve into a chronic state. Lasts until healing occurs.
Addiction: An individual will do whatever it takes to obtain the medication.
Adjuvant Analgesics: medication that is not primarily designed to control pain, but can be used for this purpose.
Alternative Pain Therapies: Meditation, imagery, art/music therapy, religion,
Chronic Pain: Defined as lasting > 3 months.
Neuropathic Pain: Caused by damage to the central or peripheral nervous system. Numbing, burning, shooting,
stabbing or electrical in nature.
Nociceptive Pain: Caused by damage to the somatic or visceral tissue. Deep, aching or throbbing localized pain.
Arises from bone, joint, muscle, skin or connective tissue.
Physical Dependence: When a patient discontinues use of medication, withdrawal symptoms are experienced.
Somatic Pain: Pain such as sunburns or abrasions.
Tolerance: Built through titration.
Visceral Pain: Organ related pain.
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NUR2731C/PAIN/REST/SLEEP 2 Fall, 2016
1. Explain pain management for acute and chronic pain. Pain management for acute pain has the goal of pain control
with eventual elimination. Chronic pain management goal is to control the pain to the extent possible focusing on
enhancing function and quality of life.
2. Correlate the type of pain (somatic, neuropathic, nociceptive, and visceral) with pain characteristics, examples,
and treatment choices. Somatic: pain categorized as superficial or deep such as from the skin or the muscles.
Superficial is described as sharp, burning, or prickly such as with a sunburn. Deep is described as aching or throbbing.
Such as with arthritis. Nonopiod and/or opiod drugs used. Neuropathic: caused by damage to peripheral nerves or
structures in the CNS. Describes as numbing, hot, burning, shooting, sharp. Can be sudden or lingering and caused by
inflammation, metabolic disease, tumors, alcoholism, and trauma. Commonly treated with adjuvant analgesics.
Nociceptive: cased by damage to somatic or visceral tissue. Visceral: arises from the activation of nociceptors in the
internal organs and lining of body cavities. Examples such as pain from a surgical incision, pancreatitis, and IBD. Well or
poorly localized. Treated with nonopiod and/or opiod analgesics.
3. Give examples of common adjuvant analgesics. Corticosteroids, antidepressants, antiseizure, GABA recepotor
agonists, local anesthetics, cannabinoids, and a2-adrenergic agonists.
4. Evaluate non-pharmacological pain and symptom interventions. Nondrug therapies such as acupuncture, massage,
relaxation strategies, TENS, and application of heat and cold can increase the patients sense of person control bout
managing pain.
5. Relate the consequences of untreated pain. Increased respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose,
weight loss, shock, fluid overload, urinary retention, MI, DVT, unstable angina, PNA, constipation, immobility, confusion,
infection, atelectasis, paralytic ileus. Untreated acute pain can lead to chronic pain.
6. Recognize differences in client perception and response to pain. Perception occurs when pain is recognized,
defined, and assigned meaning by the individual experiencing pain. Limbic system is responsible for behavioral
responses to pain. Behavioral strategies such as distraction and relaxation are effective for many people.
7. Assess client need for administration of a PRN pain medication. Assess for pain using body language, facial
grimacing, pain rating, vitals, and whatever the patient says the pain is. Monitor respiratons, bp, and hold for increased
8. Recognize a client’s right in relation to pain management. Pain is whatever the patient says it is and everyone copes
differently with pain. Ask paitents what they are using now to control pain, what they have used in the past, and the
outcomes of these methods.
9. Describe cultural responses to pain. Hispanic, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean backgrounds are often referred to
as expressive to pain. Stoic patients often come from Northern European and Asian backgrounds; they do not express
their pain.
Students are responsible to read all pages pertinent to the topic and review information covered in
previous courses.
1. Read:
Lewis and Heitkemper, 9th edition Chapter 9 : Pain
2. Review :
Adams & Urban Pharmacology (2nd ed). Chapter 29 Pharmacotherapy of Severe Pain and Migraines
3. Optional Journal Articles:
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