NUR 2462C Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Spinal Cord Injury, Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction, Autonomic Dysreflexia

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Published on 8 Jun 2020
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Professor
SPC THREATS TO MOBILITY
NUR2731C/MOBILITY 1 Fall, 2016
ST. PETERSBURG COLLEGE
COLLEGE OF NURSING
ASSOCIATE DEGREE NURSING PROGRAM
NUR 2731C - NURSING IV
UNIT IV: THREATS TO MOBILITY
KEY TERMS
Autonomic dysreflexia: Also known as autonomic hyperreflexia, a massive uncompensated cardiovascular reaction
mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Involves stimulation of sensory receptors below the level of spinal cord injury.
Injury of T6 or higher. Stimulation of sensory receptors below the level of the cord lesion causes the intact autonomic nervous
system to respond with arteriolar spasm which increases the blood pressure. When hypertension occurs, the parasympathetic
nervous system is activated causing the heart rate to drop. The signal for the peripheral and visceral vessels to dilate doesn’t
happen because the efferent impulses can’t pass through the cord due to the injury.
Complete cord injury: Total loss of sensory and motor functions below the level of injury.
Incomplete cord injury: Mixed loss of voluntary motor activity and sensation, leaves some tracts intact.
Neurogenic bladder: Any type of bladder dysfunction related to abnormal or absent bladder innervation.
Neurogenic shock: Due to the loss of vasomotor tone caused by injury and is characterized by hypotension and bradycardia.
Occurs T5-6 and higher injuries. Shock caused by caused by the sudden loss of the sypathetic nervous system signals to the
smooth muscle in vessel walls leading to low blood pressure and serious reduction in venous return (venous pooling) and in
cardiac output.
Neurologic level: Lowest segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory and motor function on both sides of the body.
Poikilothermia: Inability to maintain a constant core temperature.
Spinal cord trauma: Injury to the spinal cord.
Spinal shock: A period of time after a spinal cord injury, when the area around the damaged cord is bruised and swollen. It
can last for up to 6 weeks. During this time no messages can pass through the spinal cord below the level of injury. This will
make the loss of function below the injury appear complete, and it is only once the swelling subsides that the true extent of the
damage will become clearer. Characterized by decreased reflexes, loss of sensation, and flaccid paralysis below the level of
injury. 50% of spinal cord injuries experience spinal cord shork.
Tetraplegia: Paralysis of all four extremities, cervical cord is involved.
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