Comm Process Exam 2

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University of Pittsburgh
Communication: Rhet & Comm

Systems Theory 10/20/2013 8:17:00 AM System-a set of objects (individuals mostly) together with the relationships between the objects and their attributes (behaviors)  Never about a single individual, have to view relationships  You cannot understand a system by looking at one part/ individual. you must look at everything and their interactions Systems can either be open or closed- amount of interaction the system has with an environment  No such things as closed living system (your body cannot feed on itself forever if its goal is to survive, need outside objects)  First date is more open (depends more on environment for conversation) while relationship for many years is closed (depends less on environment because they have a more common language)  Open=elaborated closed=restricted Characteristics of a System  Wholeness- in order to understand a system, you have to study it as a whole unit (you have to study a family as a whole, you cant isolate the members and expect to understand) o Nonsummativity- a whole is not the sum of its parts. The parts create something bigger than itself)  Ex. baking a cake o Interdependency- the members rely on each other to survive. One member’s actions have a direct impact on the other  Internal-actions that occur between members themselves  External-actions with the external world  Feedback- response to prior behavior (Attention-positive) o Homeostasis- ultimate goal; predictability; when things work in the way they are supposed to; security; were willing to change in order to keep homeostasis  Equifinality- same means/ different ends or different means/same ends o The same end can be achieved a number of different ways o The means might not always produce the same end  You can tell a joke to a bunch of different people and get different responses History of Discipline 10/20/2013 8:17:00 AM Western Study Greece: 450 BC  Democracy established- individuals realized they had a voice o They had to argue their cases themselves (no lawyers)  Attention turns to rhetoric- need for argumentation ^^ o Chomsky ―people in a free society need to be able to speak for themselves. Democracies require the ability to persuade‖  Rhetoric means ―to move‖ by way of our words (persuade)  Emphasis is One to Many- how do my words move all of you o Unidirectional- speaker to the audience Aristotle: The Rhetoric  Ethos- character of the speaker (are you believable/ credible)  Pathos- emotion; get emotion involved- words we use have an emotional impact  Logos- appeal to logic; assume audience can make connections  Rhetoric remains the primary focus until early 1900s 1920s—1940s: radio and TV expand interest in communication  Other disciplines begin to study communication  Concern with propaganda o Yale Study (Hovland, Janis, Kelly)- gather people who are concerned with the impact of propaganda; start with studying Aristotle; then add attitude change; Attitude and how it changes in response to propaganda  4 factors contributing to attitude change o character of speaker (ethos) o motivational appeals used in message (pathos) o organization of message- primacy vs recency (do audiences remember first of last things they hear) o group affiliation/personal involvement of audience- persuasion is more than speakeraudience. Audience will also be influenced by opinion leaders (people they admire their opinion; often peers)  Chicago School (Meade, Blumer)- great numbers of people moving into an already established society; human connections o Symbolic interactionism- communication is the center of how human personality is formed and changed  People respond to meaning attached to others’ actions  Meaning of all things (even self) is socially constructed through interaction- WE ARE WHO WE ARE BECAUSE OF OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS  No other way to describe who we are without comparisons or relationships  We always want to see where we fall in relationship to others 1940s—1950s  Psycholinguistics (Psychology of Language); Speech Pathology; Voice and Diction- speech is now something that can be corrected, every sound can be produced and fixed  Study of communication becoming more scientific 1948: Shannon and Weaver (Bell Telephone)  Mathematical Model of Communication o Information source- sends a message o Transmitter- changes the message into a message that can be understood by the receiver o Destination o Noise sources and correction channel to compensate for noise  Physical noise- loud machinery, traffic noise, talking  Psychological noise- anxiety, depression, boredom  Semantic noise- the perceived meaning of a word is upsetting, distracting, or unclear; bias against speaker  Intra-listener discomfort- lack of sleep, stomachache, headache, hunger, room temperature, hard chairs 1950s—1970s: Emphasis on Interpersonal Communication and Power in CX- what kinds of power do people have and how do you know by way of words?  Both are response to sociopolitical events: civil rights, womens rights, Vietnam, growing distrust of national & international leaders  Increase sense of communication as scientific discipline  Growing sense of communication as critical study- public platforms were open mostly to those in positions of power, there was a growing sense of communication as a critical study 1970s: Speech Association of American to SCA (Now NCA)  platform speaking to speech communication association (focuses on
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