Africanization: changing of the results of cross-fertilization
Avant-Garde: modality and free form from the 1950s and 1960s with collective
Backbeat: a syncopated accentuation on the “off” beat. In a simple 4/4 rhythm these are
beats 2 and 4
Collective improvisation: used with free jazz by John Coltrane
Cool Jazz: West Coast Inspired Jazz
Jazz Rock Fusion: a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians
combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock,
rhythm and blues, and Latin jazz. Associated with the West Coast. MJQ led by John
Lewis. White popular.
Hard Bop: late 1950s. African American East Coast reaction, organ trios, Art Blakey,
Hard School Within the Cool: referes to musicians in the cool school
Harmony: the sound of two or more notes heard simultaneously
Improvisation: spontaneous or unrehearsed melody/rhythm
Jam session: relatively informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians,
typically instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes, songs, and chord
M-Base: brings structure of bebop, modal, and groove. Started in New York.
Melody: a tune, voice, or line, a linear succession of musical tones that the listener
perceives as a single entity
Modality: playing on modes instead of chords. Melodic mode. [Miles Davis’ Kind of
NEA: National Endowment for the arts. Geri Allen won this award
Organ trio: popular in the 1950s and 1960s organist, saxophone, and drummer
Progressive Jazz: white big band, Western european composition, large brass, concert
format, swing is not a priority, absence of blues. The industries answer to the decline of
jazz in the late 40s on the West Coast, respond to decline of bebop, led by Stan Kenton.
Rhythm: the patter of regular or irregular pulses caused in music by the occurrence of
strong and weak melodic and harmonic beats
Riff: a short, repeating phrase in jazz. Typically used as an introduction or refrain in a
Sampling: take a piece of music from an original recording, and reusing it in a new piece
of music or song.
Sheets of sound: used to describe the new, unique improvisational style of John Coltrane
Swing: style of jazz in the 1930s. Feels/Makes you want to dance
Third stream: a musical genre which is a synthesis of classical music and jazz
Vocalese: a style of singing in which singers put words to jazz tunes, especially to
previously improvised instrumental solos. Young Lions: Wynton Marsalis’ band. Part of the neo-bop era. (bebop, hard bop, and
modal jazz mixture).
Julian “Cannonball” Adderley: alto-sax. Collabrations with Miles Davis. Noted for
contribution in modality.
Professor Geri Allen: pianist. World renown scholar. Mentor was Kenny Barron (piano)
Kenny Barron: jazz pianist, composer, and educator. Geri Allen’s mentor.
George Benson: Pittsburgher. Popular during the Fusion Era. “Breezin”
Black Rock Coalition: Organization that was inspired by the legacy of Miles Davis
Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers: straight-ahead jazz/main-stream jazz. Pittsburgher.
Played the drums. “The Volcano” “god” Jazz ensemble that served as a mentor for
Ray Brown: Pittsburgher. Stand-up bass/acoustic bass. Original member of the modern
jazz quartet. Dizzy’s Big band - rhythm
Dave Brubeck: “Take 5”. Pianist. Associated with the cool period. Experimentation with
different time signatures
Donald Byrd: Trumpeter. Associated with fusion. Played at University of Pittsburgh.
Terri Lyne Carrington: Female jazz drummer. Plays in a trio with Geri Allen.
Maurice Chestnut: Tap dancer. Invited to University of Pittsburgh. Call-and-response.
Kenny “Klook-a-mop” or “Klock” Clarke: drummer from the Bebop Era. Invented his
own technique on the drums in the 30s. Pittsburgher. Revolutionized drumming during
the Bebop Era. 2 part process – using the crash cymbal and the bass drum – “dropping
bombs” Pittsburgher. Original member of the Modern Jazz Quartet.
Ornette Coleman: multi-instrumenalist during the 60s. Avant-Garde. “Free Jazz.” Vioin,
alto-saxophone. Giant in jazz who influenced many.
Steve Coleman: Saxophone. M-Base.
John “Trane” Coltrane: Guru of jazz during the 1960s. Alto-saxophone in R&B groups.
Philadelphia. Tenor saxophone and soprano-saxophone. Sheets of sound. Recordings
were made when the LP came into being. Long improvisations. Hard-bop, association
with Miles Davis in Modality. Avant-Garde. Brought Indian music into jazz.
Chick Corea: Fusion. Played with Miles Davis and his band. Return to Forever – Chick
Miles Dewey Davis: trumpet and fugal horn. Associated with several styles of jazz. Came
to New York – Coleman Hawkins and Charlie Parker. Leader in the Cool Period.
Important recordings during the Hard-bop period. Avant-garde, fusion.
Dr. Nathan Davis: Founder of jazz studies at University of Pittsburgh. Tenor saxophone,
soprano saxophone, flute. Bass and cello as well.
Eric Dolphy: multi-instrumentalist during the 1960s. “Father of the avant-garde”-
according to the musicians. 3 instruments, alto saxophone, bass clarinet, flute.
Gil Evans: Most noted for abilities in arranging. Associations with Miles Davis during
the Cool Period.
Stan Getz: Tenor saxophone. American jazz musician that went to Brazil to learn about