MUSIC 0711 Final: Jazz Final Terms and VIPs

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MUSIC 0711
Doretta Whalen

Terms:  Africanization: changing of the results of cross-fertilization  Avant-Garde: modality and free form from the 1950s and 1960s with collective improvisation  Backbeat: a syncopated accentuation on the “off” beat. In a simple 4/4 rhythm these are beats 2 and 4  Collective improvisation: used with free jazz by John Coltrane  Cool Jazz: West Coast Inspired Jazz  Jazz Rock Fusion: a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock, rhythm and blues, and Latin jazz. Associated with the West Coast. MJQ led by John Lewis. White popular.  Hard Bop: late 1950s. African American East Coast reaction, organ trios, Art Blakey, blues based.  Hard School Within the Cool: referes to musicians in the cool school  Harmony: the sound of two or more notes heard simultaneously  Improvisation: spontaneous or unrehearsed melody/rhythm  Jam session: relatively informal musical event, process, or activity where musicians, typically instrumentalists, play improvised solos and vamp on tunes, songs, and chord progressions.  M-Base: brings structure of bebop, modal, and groove. Started in New York.  Melody: a tune, voice, or line, a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity  Modality: playing on modes instead of chords. Melodic mode. [Miles Davis’ Kind of Blue]  Movie Industry:  NEA: National Endowment for the arts. Geri Allen won this award  Organ trio: popular in the 1950s and 1960s organist, saxophone, and drummer  Progressive Jazz: white big band, Western european composition, large brass, concert format, swing is not a priority, absence of blues. The industries answer to the decline of jazz in the late 40s on the West Coast, respond to decline of bebop, led by Stan Kenton. Latin Presence.  Rhythm: the patter of regular or irregular pulses caused in music by the occurrence of strong and weak melodic and harmonic beats  Riff: a short, repeating phrase in jazz. Typically used as an introduction or refrain in a song  Sampling: take a piece of music from an original recording, and reusing it in a new piece of music or song.  Sheets of sound: used to describe the new, unique improvisational style of John Coltrane  Swing: style of jazz in the 1930s. Feels/Makes you want to dance  Third stream: a musical genre which is a synthesis of classical music and jazz  Vocalese: a style of singing in which singers put words to jazz tunes, especially to previously improvised instrumental solos.  Young Lions: Wynton Marsalis’ band. Part of the neo-bop era. (bebop, hard bop, and modal jazz mixture). VIPS:  Julian “Cannonball” Adderley: alto-sax. Collabrations with Miles Davis. Noted for contribution in modality.  Professor Geri Allen: pianist. World renown scholar. Mentor was Kenny Barron (piano)  Kenny Barron: jazz pianist, composer, and educator. Geri Allen’s mentor.  George Benson: Pittsburgher. Popular during the Fusion Era. “Breezin”  Black Rock Coalition: Organization that was inspired by the legacy of Miles Davis  Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers: straight-ahead jazz/main-stream jazz. Pittsburgher. Played the drums. “The Volcano” “god” Jazz ensemble that served as a mentor for younger musicians.  Ray Brown: Pittsburgher. Stand-up bass/acoustic bass. Original member of the modern jazz quartet. Dizzy’s Big band - rhythm  Dave Brubeck: “Take 5”. Pianist. Associated with the cool period. Experimentation with different time signatures  Donald Byrd: Trumpeter. Associated with fusion. Played at University of Pittsburgh.  Terri Lyne Carrington: Female jazz drummer. Plays in a trio with Geri Allen.  Maurice Chestnut: Tap dancer. Invited to University of Pittsburgh. Call-and-response. Improvisations.  Kenny “Klook-a-mop” or “Klock” Clarke: drummer from the Bebop Era. Invented his own technique on the drums in the 30s. Pittsburgher. Revolutionized drumming during the Bebop Era. 2 part process – using the crash cymbal and the bass drum – “dropping bombs” Pittsburgher. Original member of the Modern Jazz Quartet.  Ornette Coleman: multi-instrumenalist during the 60s. Avant-Garde. “Free Jazz.” Vioin, alto-saxophone. Giant in jazz who influenced many.  Steve Coleman: Saxophone. M-Base.  John “Trane” Coltrane: Guru of jazz during the 1960s. Alto-saxophone in R&B groups. Philadelphia. Tenor saxophone and soprano-saxophone. Sheets of sound. Recordings were made when the LP came into being. Long improvisations. Hard-bop, association with Miles Davis in Modality. Avant-Garde. Brought Indian music into jazz.  Chick Corea: Fusion. Played with Miles Davis and his band. Return to Forever – Chick on synthesizer.  Miles Dewey Davis: trumpet and fugal horn. Associated with several styles of jazz. Came to New York – Coleman Hawkins and Charlie Parker. Leader in the Cool Period. Important recordings during the Hard-bop period. Avant-garde, fusion.  Dr. Nathan Davis: Founder of jazz studies at University of Pittsburgh. Tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone, flute. Bass and cello as well.  Eric Dolphy: multi-instrumentalist during the 1960s. “Father of the avant-garde”- according to the musicians. 3 instruments, alto saxophone, bass clarinet, flute.  Gil Evans: Most noted for abilities in arranging. Associations with Miles Davis during the Cool Period.  Stan Getz: Tenor saxophone. American jazz musician that went to Brazil to learn about
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