MUSIC 0711 Final: VIPs and Terms

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University of Pittsburgh
MUSIC 0711
Doretta Whalen

History of Jazz Final Review Work Sheet and Study Guide Terms: Africanization the African influence on crossfertilization of cultures AvantGarde Modality and free Form from the 50s and 60s with collective improv BackbeatSecond and fourth beat of a measure is heavily emphasized in 44 time. Jelly Roll Morton used this. Collective Improvisation Musicians all improvise at the same time Cool Jazz Focal point of jazz in late 1940s(1949) and 1950s. Composition driven, cool brass w French horns, tuba, rich harmonies, understated or subdued feeling. Miles Davis, MJQ, Gerry Mulligan, Shorty Rogers, John Lewis, JJ Johnson, Dave Brubeck, Gerald Wilson. Lester Young was the Father of the Cool Crawford Grill Renowned jazz club that operated in two locations in the Pittsburgh. Hugely popular in 1950s and 1960s. Black owned. The Big Crossover In the wake of jazz fusions decline in the mid 1970s, jazz artist who wanted wider audiences began incorporating a variety of popular sounds into their music, making it more accessible Effects Delay, reverb, distortion, fuzztone, wahwah pedal electronic, Freedom, Free Jazz Another name for avant garde jazz attempted to break down convention by discarding fixed chord changes, attempt to return jazz to its primitive often religious roots and emphasize collective improvisation Jazz Rock Fusion Part of The Big Crossover. Electrified instruments, electronic instruments, effects, sampling. The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix, Miles Davis, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Weather Report Hard Bop Bluesy, gospellike, call and response, riffs, hard driving, strong backbeat, improvisation, danceable. Detroit, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, New York. Cannonball Adderly, Art Blakey, Organ Trios. Blue Note Records, Riverside Records, Emarcy Records, Prestige Records. Hard Bop is East Coast, Cool Jazz is West Coast. Hard School Within the Cool Response to the cool by many artists. Dexter Gordon, Hampton Hawes, Wardell Gray, Sonny Criss, Frank Butler, Joe Gordon Harmony How chords are used. Improvisation Making it up as you go Jam session MBase Started in Brooklyn by Steve Coleman, Geri Allen, Graham Haynes, Cassandra Wilson, Robin Eubanks, and Greg Osby. Macrobasic array of
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