PS 0500 World Politics 11.28 12.3 and Final Review.docx

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Political Science
PS 0500
Daniela Donno

November 28, 2012 Terrorism Who Uses Terrorism?  Terrorism is a tactic  Groups or individuals that employ terrorism may renounce such tactics and be accepted in the realm of “normal” politics  Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) o IRA undertook terrorist attacks against UK to fight for the Northern Ireland to join the Republic  Yasir Arafat (Palestine) Terrorism Today  Post 9/11 world: “Super-terrorism”  Terrorism is now increasingly being perpetrated by transnational groups that operate across state borders and are fighting for a cause that transcends state borders o Groups structured as networks, rather than as hierarchal organizations o Flow of authority isn’t under one leader o Harder for countries like U.S. to fight them…you can’t decapitate the organization by taking out the leader, because there are different cells in different locations around the globe o Al Qaeda- still exists in different forms like in Yemen, Northern Africa, and Sudan that are all interconnected…even though Bin Laden is dead.  Now, there is greater death and destruction- use of technology and weapons of mass destruction  Globalization makes it harder to locate terrorist groups o Internet, cell phones, communication technology  Increases the size of the “audience” o Media operates on 24 hour news cycle Causes of Terrorism  Group level: o NOT all violent groups use terrorism o More likely if group is “weak” in conventional terms  Conventional metrics of military power: training, weapons, number of fighters, etc.  Individual level: o What drives individual to be a suicide bomber or join a terrorist group o ARTICLE: Libya: supplying large number of suicide bombers to civil war in Iraq. o Economic deprivation  “Nothing to loose” o Unemployment o Religious extremism  Preaching radical branch of Islam o Pride, sense of identity  Groups feel oppressed because of their ethnicity Post 9/11 “3 Circles of Threat” 1. Leadership of Al Qaeda involved in planning and executing 9/11 o These individual leaders have been caught, captured or killed. 2. Local-based terrorist groups that share Al Qaeda’s ideology o Loosely affiliated, have same goals o Hamas, Hizbullah, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Chechen rebel groups 3. Biggest Circle of Threat) Individual “jihadists” o Many are freelancers that have never even come in contact with a real “member” of Al Qaeda o How many people are in this category of “potential” terrorist  How does each “circle” of threat require different tools to fight? Fighting Terrorism- Example 1  Libya under President Muammar Kaddafi sponsored the 1988 bombing of PanAm Flight 103 o Killed 270 people o Evidence that government of Libya sponsored this attack  2003- Libya gives up its nuclear weapons program after long negotiations with U.S.  2008- Libya agrees on deal for compensating families of those killed in PanAm bombing  Taken off list of state sponsors of terrorism  Widely belief that the Iraq invasion by U.S.A scared them into doing this. Fighting Terrorism- Example 2  Conflict in Northern Ireland  “Unionists” (mainly protestants) favor union with Britain  “Republicans” (mainly Catholics) who favor joining Ireland  IRA and paramilitary Unionist groups engage in terrorist tactics  Violence, 1966-1998  “Good Friday Accords,” signed in 1998  Sinn Fein/ IRA transitioned to a political party o Gained many seats o Majority of official wings of IRA have renounced violence  UK government conceded greater autonomy to Northern Ireland December 3 A Clash of Civilizations A Clash of Civilizations  1991- Huntington (political scientist) predicted that the fault-lines of international conflict would now be civilizations instead of states o Civilizations are the “broadest cultural identity” that people can share. o Huntington classifies the world by 9 civilizations that are significant  Western  Latin American  African  Islamic  Confucian  Hindu  Orthodox  Buddhist  Japanese  Criticisms: o It classifies the world based mainly on religious identity o Is it misleading to imply that everyone can relate to one of these civilizations? There s a lot of multiculturalism o It masks serious divisions within the civilizations. (Islam divide- Sunni and Shi’ite) o Big danger from policy standpoint- It carries the danger of becoming a self-fulfilling prophecy.  If leaders start to view the world in terms of these divisions of civilizations and as conflict between them…it might lead them to start to undertake antagonistic policies that will generate the type of conflict this thesis is predicting or making these conflicts more real. Post 9/11: Global War on Terror  Global War on Terror (GWOT)  Put forth by the Bush administration  1. Fight against terrorist groups with radical Islamic ideology  2. The idea that t
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