PSY 0010 Final: Study Guide Exam 4

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PSY 0010
Jennifer Cousins

Introduction to Psychology 0010 Study Guide Exam 4 General conceptual understanding for each topic – what, when, how, and most importantly, why • know what each of these concepts are and their definitions • be able to recognize EXAMPLES of the material listed. Chapter 10: Development • The stages of prenatal development (zygote, germinal, embryonic, fetal) o Zygote: a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg o Germinal: 2-ndek perioththat begins at conception o Embryonic: 2 week – 8 week o Fetal: 9 week – birth • Newborn motor and visual capabilities o Poor vision, habituate to visual stimuli o Can mimic facial expressions within the first hours of life o Need to strengthen muscles, need to work on motor development • Motor development: cephalocaudal rule and proximodistal rule o Cephalocaudal rule: tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet o Proximodistal rule: tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from center to the periphery • Piaget and cognitive development and definitions and examples of the developmental (sensorimotor stage, preoperational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage) o Cognitive development: the emergence of the ability to think and understand. o Sensorimotor stage: birth-2 years. Infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it o Preoperational stage: 2-6 years. Children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world o Concrete operational stage: 6-11 years. Children learn how various actions or operations can affect or transform concrete objects. o Formal operational stage: 11+ years. Children can solve non-physical problems; abstract thinking. • Assimilation and accommodation o Assimilation: the process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations o Accommodation: the process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information • Object permanence and conservation and how they relate to the developmental stages o Object permanence: the idea that things still exist even though you can’t see them o Conservation: the notion that basic properties of an object do not change despite changes in the object’s appearance • Egocentrism, Theory of mind and false belief tasks o Egocentrism: the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different people o Theory of mind: the understanding that other people’s mental representations guide their behavior o False belief tasks: recognize that others can have beliefs about the world that are diverging • Vygotsky: joint attention, social referencing, imitation o Joint attention: the ability to focus on what another is focused on o Social referencing: the ability to use another person’s reactions as information about the world o Imitation: the tendency to do what another person does or is trying to do • Styles of attachment (secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disorganized) o Secure attachment: when the caregiver leaves, secure infants may or may not be distressed. When she returns, the distressed infant goes to her and can be calmed by her presence, while non-distressed infants acknowledge her with a glance or greeting. o Avoidant attachment: when the caregiver leaves, avoidant infants are not distressed, but when she returns, they don’t acknowledge her o Ambivalent attachment: when the caregiver leaves, ambivalent infants are distressed, and when she returns, they rebuff her, refusing any attempt at calming while arching their backs and squirming to get away o Disorganized attachment: when their caregiver leaves and returns, disorganized infants show no consistent patters of response. • Harlow and his monkeys o Monkeys that were safe, warm and fed but that were not allowed any social contact for the first 6 months of their lives developed behavioral abnormalities ▪ Rocked back and forth, bit themselves, when introduced to other monkeys they avoided them completely o When given the choice between cloth mother or wire mother that gave food, they chose cloth mother ▪ Infants require something more from mothers than just food • Kohlbergs stages of moral development (preconventional, conventional and postconventional): definitions and examples o Preconventional: a stage or moral development in which they morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor ▪ Judgement of Heinz stealing the drugs for his dying wife • He would feel bad if he went to jail • But he would feel even worse if his wife died, so he should steal the medicine o Conventional: a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules ▪ Heinz must weigh his duty to society • He should obey the law, against the duty to his family, which suggests he should break it o Postconventional: a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflects core values ▪ Right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness • A woman’s life is more important that a shopkeeper’s profits, so stealing the drug is a moral obligation • Adolescence: Changes in brain connectivity before and after puberty o Before puberty: ▪ The connections between the temporal lobe and the parietal lobe multiply rapidly and then stop ▪ Massive increase in the number of new synapses in the prefrontal cortex o After puberty: ▪ Synaptic “pruning” • Synaptic connections that are not frequently used are eliminated • Gender and gender identity o Gender: innermost concept of self as male, female, both, or neither o Cisgender: gender identity matches sex at birth o Transgender: gender identity that differs from what you were born as o Intersex: a person born with both reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Signs and Symptoms, three related general medical and classification terms (disorder, disease and diagnosis) • Signs: objectively observed indicators of a disorder • Symptoms: reported behaviors, thoughts, and emotions • Disorder: a common set of signs and symptoms • Disease: a known pathological process affecting the body • Diagnosis: a determination as to whether a disorder or disease is present Medical model, Integrative Perspective, Diathesis stress model, the intervention causality fallacy and the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC) • Medical model: abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures • Integrative perspective: incorportates biological, psychological, and environmental factors ▪ Different individuals may experience a similar psychological disorder for different reasons • Diathesis stress model: suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress • Intervention causality fallacy: assumes treatment addresses the cause of the disorder ▪ The brain is likely not the only cause • Research domain criteria: o New initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them o Long-term goal: what abnormalities cause different disorders, classify disorders based on the underlying causes Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-V): (YOU WILL NOT NEED TO KNOW EACH OF THE CATEGORIES) • Describes 22 major categories containing more than 200 different mental disorders o Specific criteria that must be met for diagnosis of each disorder Comorbidity • The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in an individual o Depression and anxiety disorders Know the definitions of and recognize examples of anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, phobic disorders-specific and social, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder). • Anxiety disorders: o The class of mental disorders in which anxiety is the predominant feature: • Generalized anxiety disorder: o A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by 3+ symptoms: ▪ Restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance • Phobic disorders: o Disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of s
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